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The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

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The SSRC Library includes resources which may be available only via journal subscription. The SSRC may be able to provide users without subscription access to a particular journal with a single use copy of the full text.  Please email the SSRC with your request.

The SSRC Library collection is constantly growing and new research is added regularly. We welcome our users to submit a library item to help us grow our collection in response to your needs.


  • Individual Author: Morris, Pamela; Duncan, Greg J.; Rodrigues, Christopher
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2011

    Social scientists do not agree on the size and nature of the causal impacts of parental income on children's achievement. We revisit this issue using a set of welfare and antipoverty experiments conducted in the 1990s. We utilize an instrumental variables strategy to leverage the variation in income and achievement that arises from random assignment to the treatment group to estimate the causal effect of income on child achievement. Our estimates suggest that a $1,000 increase in annual income increases young children's achievement by 5%–6% of a standard deviation. As such, our results suggest that family income has a policy-relevant, positive impact on the eventual school achievement of preschool children. (author abstract)

    Social scientists do not agree on the size and nature of the causal impacts of parental income on children's achievement. We revisit this issue using a set of welfare and antipoverty experiments conducted in the 1990s. We utilize an instrumental variables strategy to leverage the variation in income and achievement that arises from random assignment to the treatment group to estimate the causal effect of income on child achievement. Our estimates suggest that a $1,000 increase in annual income increases young children's achievement by 5%–6% of a standard deviation. As such, our results suggest that family income has a policy-relevant, positive impact on the eventual school achievement of preschool children. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Collard, Carol S.
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2007

    Securing adequate housing is a key component in achieving family well-being and a decent quality of life. It is expected that as many as twenty percent of the families currently on welfare, many of whom are disproportionately female and African American, may not be employable by the end of their lifetime benefit. These families, classified as “hard-to-serve” or “hard-to-employ,” are headed by an adult who may be struggling with substance abuse, physical or mental health problems, as well as low literacy and social competency issues that inhibit achieving self-sufficiency. This author will examine existing literature on welfare-dependent households coping with substance abuse and mental health problems, and how the lack of affordable housing impacts their ability to achieve self-sufficiency. This article presents a case study of Delowe Village Apartments, a supportive housing development in Georgia that combines the provision of social services with affordable housing. (author abstract)

    Securing adequate housing is a key component in achieving family well-being and a decent quality of life. It is expected that as many as twenty percent of the families currently on welfare, many of whom are disproportionately female and African American, may not be employable by the end of their lifetime benefit. These families, classified as “hard-to-serve” or “hard-to-employ,” are headed by an adult who may be struggling with substance abuse, physical or mental health problems, as well as low literacy and social competency issues that inhibit achieving self-sufficiency. This author will examine existing literature on welfare-dependent households coping with substance abuse and mental health problems, and how the lack of affordable housing impacts their ability to achieve self-sufficiency. This article presents a case study of Delowe Village Apartments, a supportive housing development in Georgia that combines the provision of social services with affordable housing. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Fischer, Robert L.
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2000

    Homeless families face the economic and personal challenges of sparse employment opportunities and child care and nutrition needs, compounded by the loss of adequate housing. The Family Development Center (FDC) is a transitional housing program in Atlanta, Georgia, designed to provide young homeless mothers an opportunity to emerge from what may well be desperate circumstances and begin the journey to economic self-sufficiency. This paper describes the research on programs for homeless families and presents the results of a comprehensive look at the operation and effectiveness of the FDC program during its first 5 years of existence. The work shows that while many families were able to effect notable positive changes in their lives during and after taking part in the housing program. for some the recovery from homelessness was extremely difficult. For even the most successful formerly homeless families-those that secured employment, housing, and other social supports-the escape from welfare dependence and poverty proved very difficult. The paper concludes with a discussion of...

    Homeless families face the economic and personal challenges of sparse employment opportunities and child care and nutrition needs, compounded by the loss of adequate housing. The Family Development Center (FDC) is a transitional housing program in Atlanta, Georgia, designed to provide young homeless mothers an opportunity to emerge from what may well be desperate circumstances and begin the journey to economic self-sufficiency. This paper describes the research on programs for homeless families and presents the results of a comprehensive look at the operation and effectiveness of the FDC program during its first 5 years of existence. The work shows that while many families were able to effect notable positive changes in their lives during and after taking part in the housing program. for some the recovery from homelessness was extremely difficult. For even the most successful formerly homeless families-those that secured employment, housing, and other social supports-the escape from welfare dependence and poverty proved very difficult. The paper concludes with a discussion of the implications for relevant public policy. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Alzate, Mónica M. ; Moxley, David P. ; Bohon, Stephanie A. ; Nackerud, Larry
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2009

    This article focuses on the realities poor women living in Georgia face in the pursuit of employment. The inquiry focuses on 107 women (84.1% African American, 15.9% white) who were respondents to a survey undertaken by the Welfare Reform Project in Georgia to predict the participants’ self-reported confidence in leaving welfare. Predictors of confidence to leave welfare involved health, age, welfare dependency, educational attainment, race, and number of children at home. Health was the strongest predictor, followed by age. Based on Bandura’s social cognitive theory, findings suggest that the confidence of female welfare recipients may be greater than can be justified by the realities of their lives and the society in which they live. The article identifies implications for social work including the delivery of social services and counseling for poor women who face complex health issues yet who want to enter the workforce. (author abstract)

    This article focuses on the realities poor women living in Georgia face in the pursuit of employment. The inquiry focuses on 107 women (84.1% African American, 15.9% white) who were respondents to a survey undertaken by the Welfare Reform Project in Georgia to predict the participants’ self-reported confidence in leaving welfare. Predictors of confidence to leave welfare involved health, age, welfare dependency, educational attainment, race, and number of children at home. Health was the strongest predictor, followed by age. Based on Bandura’s social cognitive theory, findings suggest that the confidence of female welfare recipients may be greater than can be justified by the realities of their lives and the society in which they live. The article identifies implications for social work including the delivery of social services and counseling for poor women who face complex health issues yet who want to enter the workforce. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Rickman, Dana K.; Bross, Nancy; Foster, E. Michael
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2001

    The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 (PRWORA) embodies a work-first strategy for moving families off welfare and toward self-sufficiency. What had been an entitlement became a limited resource on which families could draw during an emergency. The expectation that parents should work to support their families is now communicated to recipients and supported through program requirements and a mix of incentives and sanctions.

    Under PRWORA, the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) caseloads in Georgia have plummeted. Between January 1997 and January 2000, the number of families receiving TANF in Georgia dropped by more than 63,000, representing nearly a 55 percent reduction in three years. By this narrow standard, welfare reform has been a success. However, a fuller assessment would reflect an understanding of the extent to which former recipients subsequently return to the rolls and are able to find and keep good jobs.

    To answer these questions, the state of Georgia funded two projects that combined the low cost and...

    The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 (PRWORA) embodies a work-first strategy for moving families off welfare and toward self-sufficiency. What had been an entitlement became a limited resource on which families could draw during an emergency. The expectation that parents should work to support their families is now communicated to recipients and supported through program requirements and a mix of incentives and sanctions.

    Under PRWORA, the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) caseloads in Georgia have plummeted. Between January 1997 and January 2000, the number of families receiving TANF in Georgia dropped by more than 63,000, representing nearly a 55 percent reduction in three years. By this narrow standard, welfare reform has been a success. However, a fuller assessment would reflect an understanding of the extent to which former recipients subsequently return to the rolls and are able to find and keep good jobs.

    To answer these questions, the state of Georgia funded two projects that combined the low cost and efficiency of population archival data with the greater depths of information offered by sample surveys. Using these data, this chapter examines recidivism and the factors that determine which leavers return to the rolls. It also explores the relationship between earnings and recidivism over time and how these relationships may evolve as families remain off the rolls. (author abstract)

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