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The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

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  • Individual Author: Coley, Rebekah Levine; Schindler, Holly S.
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2008

    Objective . This study assessed the supposition that fathers' parenting and economic contributions help to support maternal and family functioning. Design . Using longitudinal data from a representative sample of low-income families with young children (N = 402), semidifference models assessed whether fathers' parenting, cash, and in-kind contributions predicted maternal functioning (mothers' psychological distress and parenting stress) and family functioning (cognitive stimulation and family routines). Results . Increases in fathers' parenting contributions predicted declines in maternal psychological distress and parenting stress. Fathers' cash and in-kind contributions showed limited relations to maternal and family functioning. Interactions by fathers' residence status found few significant differences in links between resident and nonresident fathers. Conclusions . These results add empirical support to...

    Objective . This study assessed the supposition that fathers' parenting and economic contributions help to support maternal and family functioning. Design . Using longitudinal data from a representative sample of low-income families with young children (N = 402), semidifference models assessed whether fathers' parenting, cash, and in-kind contributions predicted maternal functioning (mothers' psychological distress and parenting stress) and family functioning (cognitive stimulation and family routines). Results . Increases in fathers' parenting contributions predicted declines in maternal psychological distress and parenting stress. Fathers' cash and in-kind contributions showed limited relations to maternal and family functioning. Interactions by fathers' residence status found few significant differences in links between resident and nonresident fathers. Conclusions . These results add empirical support to conceptual models delineating indirect pathways by which parental support may influence children. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Legerski, Elizabeth M.
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2012

    The number of uninsured Americans has risen substantially over the last decade. Despite the availability of Medicaid, low-income women are at particularly elevated risk of having no or inadequate health insurance. How does continuity of work, family, and welfare affect low-income women’s health insurance status? A multinomial logistic regression analysis of 1,662 low-income women from the Welfare, Children, and Families: A Three-City Study provides evidence of the consequences of life changes on access to health insurance from 1999–2005. The results show that compared to those with stable welfare, work, and family attachments, new full-time employment actually increases low-income women’s risk of being uninsured as does being underemployed, on welfare, or single for extended periods of time. These findings illustrate how health-care reform must adequately address the complexity of low-income women’s lives—including the ways labor market, state, and family factors interact to create barriers to health insurance—in order to improve access to care under the current U.S. health...

    The number of uninsured Americans has risen substantially over the last decade. Despite the availability of Medicaid, low-income women are at particularly elevated risk of having no or inadequate health insurance. How does continuity of work, family, and welfare affect low-income women’s health insurance status? A multinomial logistic regression analysis of 1,662 low-income women from the Welfare, Children, and Families: A Three-City Study provides evidence of the consequences of life changes on access to health insurance from 1999–2005. The results show that compared to those with stable welfare, work, and family attachments, new full-time employment actually increases low-income women’s risk of being uninsured as does being underemployed, on welfare, or single for extended periods of time. These findings illustrate how health-care reform must adequately address the complexity of low-income women’s lives—including the ways labor market, state, and family factors interact to create barriers to health insurance—in order to improve access to care under the current U.S. health insurance model. (author abstract) 

  • Individual Author: Romero, Diana; Chavkin, Wendy; Wise, Paul H.; Smith, Lauren A.; Wood, Pamela R.
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2002

    Objectives. This study investigated whether health problems among poor mothers of chronically ill children affect their ability to obtain and maintain employment.

    Methods. Mothers of children with chronic illnesses were surveyed at clinical and welfare agency sites in San Antonio, Tex.

    Results. There were distinct health differences according to mothers’ TANF and employment status. Mothers without TANF experience reported better physical and mental health and less domestic violence and substance use than did those who had TANF experience. Those not currently working had higher rates of physical and mental health problems.

    Conclusions. Poor maternal health is associated with need for cash assistance and health insurance. Policymakers must recognize that social policies promoting employment will fail if they do not address the health needs of poor women and children. (author abstract)

    Objectives. This study investigated whether health problems among poor mothers of chronically ill children affect their ability to obtain and maintain employment.

    Methods. Mothers of children with chronic illnesses were surveyed at clinical and welfare agency sites in San Antonio, Tex.

    Results. There were distinct health differences according to mothers’ TANF and employment status. Mothers without TANF experience reported better physical and mental health and less domestic violence and substance use than did those who had TANF experience. Those not currently working had higher rates of physical and mental health problems.

    Conclusions. Poor maternal health is associated with need for cash assistance and health insurance. Policymakers must recognize that social policies promoting employment will fail if they do not address the health needs of poor women and children. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Cherlin, Andrew; Burton, Linda; Francis, Judith; Henrici, Jane; Lein, Laura; Quane, James; Bogen, Karen
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2001

    Seventeen percent of a sample of current and recent welfare recipients in Boston, Chicago, and San Antonio reported that their benefits had been reduced or stopped because the welfare office said they weren’t following the rules. These penalties resulted from both partial and full-family sanctions as well as from case closings for procedural reasons. Recipients reported that the most common reasons were missing an appointment or failing to file required paperwork. Only 12 percent of the penalties were imposed for failing to take a job or to show up for a job-related activity. Individuals whose benefits were reduced or stopped were more disadvantaged than other recipients in many respects, such as education, health, financial difficulties, housing quality, and neighborhood quality. Former recipients who reported leaving the welfare rolls because of sanctions or case closings had substantially lower employment rates and earnings than did those who left for other reasons. These findings suggest that agencies and organizations may wish to give more attention to families at imminent...

    Seventeen percent of a sample of current and recent welfare recipients in Boston, Chicago, and San Antonio reported that their benefits had been reduced or stopped because the welfare office said they weren’t following the rules. These penalties resulted from both partial and full-family sanctions as well as from case closings for procedural reasons. Recipients reported that the most common reasons were missing an appointment or failing to file required paperwork. Only 12 percent of the penalties were imposed for failing to take a job or to show up for a job-related activity. Individuals whose benefits were reduced or stopped were more disadvantaged than other recipients in many respects, such as education, health, financial difficulties, housing quality, and neighborhood quality. Former recipients who reported leaving the welfare rolls because of sanctions or case closings had substantially lower employment rates and earnings than did those who left for other reasons. These findings suggest that agencies and organizations may wish to give more attention to families at imminent risk of sanctions or case closings to help them come into compliance. They also suggest that families who leave welfare due to noncompliance may need more assistance in finding and retaining employment. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Pavetti, LaDonna; Derr, Michelle; Anderson, Jacquelyn; Trippe, Carole; Paschal, Sidnee
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2000

    Although it is perceived that many welfare offices are using intermediaries to link welfare recipients with jobs, very little is known about how widely they are used, who these intermediaries are, how they operate or the issues they face in linking welfare recipients with jobs.  To better understand the characteristics of intermediary organizations and their role in current welfare reform efforts, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation (ASPE) contracted with Mathematica Policy Research, Inc. (MPR) to conduct the exploratory research documented in this report.  This research has four purposes:

    1. To describe the characteristics of intermediaries
    2. To describe the key decisions local welfare offices have made regarding the use of intermediaries
    3. To provide in-depth information on the types of services intermediaries provide, the process they use to link welfare recipients with employers and the challenges they face
    4. To identify lessons that can benefit policymakers and other or...

    Although it is perceived that many welfare offices are using intermediaries to link welfare recipients with jobs, very little is known about how widely they are used, who these intermediaries are, how they operate or the issues they face in linking welfare recipients with jobs.  To better understand the characteristics of intermediary organizations and their role in current welfare reform efforts, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation (ASPE) contracted with Mathematica Policy Research, Inc. (MPR) to conduct the exploratory research documented in this report.  This research has four purposes:

    1. To describe the characteristics of intermediaries
    2. To describe the key decisions local welfare offices have made regarding the use of intermediaries
    3. To provide in-depth information on the types of services intermediaries provide, the process they use to link welfare recipients with employers and the challenges they face
    4. To identify lessons that can benefit policymakers and other or newly emerging intermediaries and assess the implications of the findings for future research on welfare employment efforts

    The devolution of responsibility from the federal government to the states for developing and implementing assistance policies for needy families has spawned a broad range of approaches to transforming the welfare system into a work-based assistance system.  To capture the way intermediaries function in these diverse policy environments, information for this study was gathered through site visits to 20 sites, one urban and one rural in each of ten states.  Sites were selected to provide broad regional representation; a mix of large, medium, and small TANF caseloads; different approaches to moving welfare recipients into employment; and a diversity of administrative and service delivery structures.  Site visits were conducted between April and August 1999 by researchers from MPR and our subcontractor, the National Alliance of Businesses (NAB). (author abstract)

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