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The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

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The SSRC Library collection is constantly growing and new research is added regularly. We welcome our users to submit a library item to help us grow our collection in response to your needs.


  • Individual Author: Witte, Ann D.; Queralt, Magaly
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2003

    We find that reforms in the Rhode Island subsidized child care program, including income and age eligibility expansions and increases in the reimbursement rates paid to formal providers, significantly increased the likelihood that current and former welfare families: a) would use child care subsidies and b) would work 20 or more hours per week. In addition, these policy changes significantly increased the probability that family heads of household would leave welfare for work. The most powerful impact of the Rhode Island changes in child care policies was on families that had left welfare (i.e., former cash recipients) and that worked at least 20 hours per week. These policy changes had less effect on families receiving cash assistance and enrolled in some approved activity (e.g., education or training) other than work. We were not able to assess the impact of the Rhode Island policy changes on families who were never on cash assistance. However, the large increase in the number of such families receiving child care subsidies after the reforms were instituted suggests that the...

    We find that reforms in the Rhode Island subsidized child care program, including income and age eligibility expansions and increases in the reimbursement rates paid to formal providers, significantly increased the likelihood that current and former welfare families: a) would use child care subsidies and b) would work 20 or more hours per week. In addition, these policy changes significantly increased the probability that family heads of household would leave welfare for work. The most powerful impact of the Rhode Island changes in child care policies was on families that had left welfare (i.e., former cash recipients) and that worked at least 20 hours per week. These policy changes had less effect on families receiving cash assistance and enrolled in some approved activity (e.g., education or training) other than work. We were not able to assess the impact of the Rhode Island policy changes on families who were never on cash assistance. However, the large increase in the number of such families receiving child care subsidies after the reforms were instituted suggests that the impact may have been substantial. We also estimate that Rhode Island's reform of its cash assistance program and of its child care subsidy program, in combination, almost tripled the probability that a typical head of household currently or formerly receiving welfare would work 20 or more hours per week (i.e., the probability increased from 7% in the second quarter of 1996 to 22% in the second quarter of 2000) and almost halved the probability that a single mother in the sample would be on cash assistance and neither working nor in some other approved activity (i.e., such probability decreased from 47% in the second quarter of 1996 to 25% in the second quarter of 2000).  (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Bouman, John M.; Stapleton, Margaret; McKee, Deb
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2003

    Work participation rates may become stricter after Congress reauthorizes Temporary Assistance for Needy Families, the welfare program mandated in 1996. States may have to adjust their programs to comply with the federal requirements and create work incentives for recipients. Maintaining state programming flexibility with state cash assistance, work supports, time-limit relief, income disregards, and other methods is critical to working recipients' adequate support. (author abstract)

    Work participation rates may become stricter after Congress reauthorizes Temporary Assistance for Needy Families, the welfare program mandated in 1996. States may have to adjust their programs to comply with the federal requirements and create work incentives for recipients. Maintaining state programming flexibility with state cash assistance, work supports, time-limit relief, income disregards, and other methods is critical to working recipients' adequate support. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Annie E. Casey Foundation
    Reference Type: Dataset
    Year: 2010

    Description: Making Connections is the Annie E. Casey Foundation’s long-term, multi-site effort to demonstrate that poor results for children and families in tough neighborhoods can be changed for the better.

    Population: Sites in Denver, Des Moines, Hartford, Indianapolis, Louisville, Milwaukee, Oakland, Providence, San Antonio, and Seattle. Aimed at improving outcomes of children and families in tough/isolated neighborhoods and communities, as well as outcomes for the communities as a whole.

    Periodicity: Started in 1999, 10 year initiative. Data collected periodically throughout each year.

    Researchers can apply for access to three waves of the neighborhood survey data and baseline countywide RDD survey data for Denver, Des Moines, Louisville, Indianapolis, Providence, San Antonio, and White Center (Seattle) and two waves of the neighborhood survey data and baseline countywide RDD survey data for Milwaukee, Oakland, and Hartford through NORC's data enclave. Learn more about the data and get information on...

    Description: Making Connections is the Annie E. Casey Foundation’s long-term, multi-site effort to demonstrate that poor results for children and families in tough neighborhoods can be changed for the better.

    Population: Sites in Denver, Des Moines, Hartford, Indianapolis, Louisville, Milwaukee, Oakland, Providence, San Antonio, and Seattle. Aimed at improving outcomes of children and families in tough/isolated neighborhoods and communities, as well as outcomes for the communities as a whole.

    Periodicity: Started in 1999, 10 year initiative. Data collected periodically throughout each year.

    Researchers can apply for access to three waves of the neighborhood survey data and baseline countywide RDD survey data for Denver, Des Moines, Louisville, Indianapolis, Providence, San Antonio, and White Center (Seattle) and two waves of the neighborhood survey data and baseline countywide RDD survey data for Milwaukee, Oakland, and Hartford through NORC's data enclave. Learn more about the data and get information on accessing the data here.

    (Information adapted from the publisher)

    For more information, please see the Compendium of Family-Self Sufficiency Databases.

  • Individual Author: National Governor's Association (NGA) Center For Best Practices
    Reference Type: Stakeholder Resource
    Year: 2007

    Research studies during the past decade have shown that despite the large number of Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) recipients entering the workforce, many of these individuals have difficulty remaining employed and advancing in the labor market.

    Governors and other state leaders are in a strong position to assume a lead role in developing programs and policies that help TANF and low-income families achieve long-term self-sufficiency through stable employment. This Issue Brief lays out ways states can create opportunities for TANF clients and low-wage workers to advance in the labor market, including:
    -Helping them prepare for success in the workforce through education and skills development activities, career and work readiness credentials, and postsecondary education;
    -Establishing "launching pads" that can help them quickly advance in the labor market through such efforts as transitional jobs programs and career ladder strategies; and
    -Providing them with ongoing support through earnings supplements, earnings disregards, work...

    Research studies during the past decade have shown that despite the large number of Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) recipients entering the workforce, many of these individuals have difficulty remaining employed and advancing in the labor market.

    Governors and other state leaders are in a strong position to assume a lead role in developing programs and policies that help TANF and low-income families achieve long-term self-sufficiency through stable employment. This Issue Brief lays out ways states can create opportunities for TANF clients and low-wage workers to advance in the labor market, including:
    -Helping them prepare for success in the workforce through education and skills development activities, career and work readiness credentials, and postsecondary education;
    -Establishing "launching pads" that can help them quickly advance in the labor market through such efforts as transitional jobs programs and career ladder strategies; and
    -Providing them with ongoing support through earnings supplements, earnings disregards, work support benefits, and child and earned income tax credits.
    (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Aizer, Anna; Stroud, Laura; Buka, Stephen
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2012

    We study how maternal stress affects offspring outcomes. We find that in-utero exposure to elevated levels of the stress hormone cortisol negatively affects offspring cognition, health and educational attainment. These findings are based on comparisons between siblings which limits variation to short-lived shocks and controls for unobserved differences between mothers that could bias estimates. Our results are consistent with recent experimental results in the neurobiological literature linking exogenous exposure to stress hormones in-utero with declines in offspring cognitive, behavioral and motor development. Moreover, we find that not only are mothers with low levels of human capital characterized by higher and more variable cortisol levels, but that the negative impact of elevated cortisol is greater for them. These results suggest that prenatal stress may play a role in the intergenerational persistence of poverty. (author abstract)

    We study how maternal stress affects offspring outcomes. We find that in-utero exposure to elevated levels of the stress hormone cortisol negatively affects offspring cognition, health and educational attainment. These findings are based on comparisons between siblings which limits variation to short-lived shocks and controls for unobserved differences between mothers that could bias estimates. Our results are consistent with recent experimental results in the neurobiological literature linking exogenous exposure to stress hormones in-utero with declines in offspring cognitive, behavioral and motor development. Moreover, we find that not only are mothers with low levels of human capital characterized by higher and more variable cortisol levels, but that the negative impact of elevated cortisol is greater for them. These results suggest that prenatal stress may play a role in the intergenerational persistence of poverty. (author abstract)

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