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The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

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  • Individual Author: Strawn, Julie
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2011

    Students forced to complete a long sequence of remedial or English language classes before they can begin their postsecondary program rarely earn college certificates or degrees. This brief highlights six promising programs that show how career pathway bridges help lower-skilled students move farther and faster along college and career paths through dual enrollment in linked basic skills and occupational certificate courses. Because creating such bridges requires collaboration across college silos, they can also transform the way colleges operate. (author abstract)

    Students forced to complete a long sequence of remedial or English language classes before they can begin their postsecondary program rarely earn college certificates or degrees. This brief highlights six promising programs that show how career pathway bridges help lower-skilled students move farther and faster along college and career paths through dual enrollment in linked basic skills and occupational certificate courses. Because creating such bridges requires collaboration across college silos, they can also transform the way colleges operate. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Scott, Ellen; Leymon, Ann Shirley; Abelson, Miriam
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2011

    A recent study documents that Oregon’s Department of Human Services (DHS) Employment-Related Day Care program (ERDC) supports employment and enables parents to meet the needs of their children. Five major findings emerged from interviews with ERDC participants:

    • Without a child-care subsidy, parents could not afford to work, as most of their wages would be required to cover child-care expenses.

    • Subsidies allow parents to contend with the unstable work conditions typical of the low-wage labor market and thereby sustain employment.

    • Subsidies allow parents to pursue better, more stable child-care arrangements.

    • Despite the generosity of Oregon’s childcare subsidy policy, parents struggle with the fluctuating and difficult cost burden associated with child care.

    • Child-care providers attest that the changes to Oregon’s policy in 2007 made enormous and positive differences to their businesses.

    In the following pages we elaborate on the findings above. These findings are based on the stories reported in forty-four in-depth interviews,...

    A recent study documents that Oregon’s Department of Human Services (DHS) Employment-Related Day Care program (ERDC) supports employment and enables parents to meet the needs of their children. Five major findings emerged from interviews with ERDC participants:

    • Without a child-care subsidy, parents could not afford to work, as most of their wages would be required to cover child-care expenses.

    • Subsidies allow parents to contend with the unstable work conditions typical of the low-wage labor market and thereby sustain employment.

    • Subsidies allow parents to pursue better, more stable child-care arrangements.

    • Despite the generosity of Oregon’s childcare subsidy policy, parents struggle with the fluctuating and difficult cost burden associated with child care.

    • Child-care providers attest that the changes to Oregon’s policy in 2007 made enormous and positive differences to their businesses.

    In the following pages we elaborate on the findings above. These findings are based on the stories reported in forty-four in-depth interviews, conducted between February and December 2009, with recipients of child-care subsidies in rural and urban parts of western Oregon, and fifteen brief interviews with some of their childcare providers. Note that the accounts we include here scarcely do justice to the complexity of the stories told in our interviews with parents, nor do they convey adequately the challenges faced by low-wage working families, the hardship they experience, and the innovative strategies they employ to make the best life possible for their children. We applaud their courage and their determination, and we thank them (all named with pseudonyms here) for taking the time to speak with us about their private lives. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Okuyama, Kumiko ; Weber, Roberta B.
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2001

    The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Act  of 1996, commonly known as PRWORA, emphasizes employment. With its emphasis on time limit sand work requirements, PRWORA makes it imperative that low-income parents find both a job and child care. A study of employment patterns of low-income parents using child care subsidies in order to work provides a valuable opportunity to increase our knowledge of an important characteristic of low-income working parents.

    For any working parent, finding stable employment with enough flexibility to meet parental responsibilities is not an easy task, and the challenge is greater for those who lack financial resources, education, and work experience. Knowing employment patterns of low-income parents is a first step toward understanding conditions of the working poor with children. A systematic analysis of where parents receiving child care subsidies are employed enhances our understanding of what is happening to families moving out of welfare. In which occupations are they finding jobs? Which...

    The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Act  of 1996, commonly known as PRWORA, emphasizes employment. With its emphasis on time limit sand work requirements, PRWORA makes it imperative that low-income parents find both a job and child care. A study of employment patterns of low-income parents using child care subsidies in order to work provides a valuable opportunity to increase our knowledge of an important characteristic of low-income working parents.

    For any working parent, finding stable employment with enough flexibility to meet parental responsibilities is not an easy task, and the challenge is greater for those who lack financial resources, education, and work experience. Knowing employment patterns of low-income parents is a first step toward understanding conditions of the working poor with children. A systematic analysis of where parents receiving child care subsidies are employed enhances our understanding of what is happening to families moving out of welfare. In which occupations are they finding jobs? Which industries are they able to penetrate? Prior to the studies that form the basis of this paper, there appeared to be no systematic study of where parents receiving child care subsidies are employed.

    This paper is a product of the Child Care Policy Research Consortium, a collaborative group of researchers that carries out policy-relevant research through partnerships of researchers, state child care administrators, and child care resource and referral practitioners. Through this national collaboration of state partnerships, the Consortium is able to report cross-state findings and compare results from seven studies in four states and the District of Columbia with regard to the employment of parents receiving subsidies.

    The first Consortium study, “Parents receiving subsidized child care: Where do they work?” (Lee, Ohlandt, and Witte, 1996) has had significant impacts on both research and policies. The significance of their paper is four-fold. First, they recognized and responded to the importance of this topic and the lack of previous studies. Second, the authors provided a simple but elegant methodology to analyze employment patterns of the working poor with children. Third, their paper had an impact on state policy. Their findings led to the passage of the Florida Child Care Executive Partnership Act in 1996.

    Through the Child Care Executive Partnership, the state of Florida matches child care contributions of employers dollar for dollar and creates pools of funds to provide child care subsidies for subsidy-eligible workers. This increases the funds available for subsidies and builds support for child care subsidies in the business community. Finally, the study provided a model that is easily replicated at either county or state levels.

    This document is organized as follows. The next section presents background of the seven studies. In the third section, we summarize the common methodology used in the studies and describe variations among the studies. In the fourth section, we discuss findings and make recommendations for further studies. In the last section, we examine the study implications for employers, child care providers, businesses, and policy makers. (author introduction)

  • Individual Author: Hastings, Sara; Tsoi-A-Fatt, Rhonda; Harris, Linda
    Reference Type: Stakeholder Resource
    Year: 2010

    Many communities have shown tremendous commitment to youth employment. The return on investment and effort, however, can be greatly multiplied if federal youth funds, discretionary funding, resources from other youth serving systems, and community resources are brought together to build comprehensive youth employment system. Key elements of such a system include: a strong convening entity, an effective administrative agent, a well-trained case management arm, strong partnerships across systems that serve youth, and high quality work experience and career exposure. (author abstract)

    Many communities have shown tremendous commitment to youth employment. The return on investment and effort, however, can be greatly multiplied if federal youth funds, discretionary funding, resources from other youth serving systems, and community resources are brought together to build comprehensive youth employment system. Key elements of such a system include: a strong convening entity, an effective administrative agent, a well-trained case management arm, strong partnerships across systems that serve youth, and high quality work experience and career exposure. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Allard, Scott
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2008

    Program accessibility and stability are critical components of any effort to cultivate greater capacity among faith-based and community-based social service organizations. Working poor populations are more likely to benefit from programs if they are nearby, easily accessible, and operate with consistency. Yet, we know very little about where faith-based service organizations (FBOs) and secular nonprofits are located, or whether certain types of providers exhibit more stability than others. Drawing on unique survey data on nonprofit service providers, this paper compares the characteristics of FBOs and secular organizations in several urban and rural communities. FBOs that integrate faith into service delivery and secular nonprofit organizations are more accessible to poor populations than FBOs that do not integrate religious elements into service provision. At the same time, I find that large percentages of FBOs and secular nonprofits experience funding volatility and program instability each year. (author abstract)

    Program accessibility and stability are critical components of any effort to cultivate greater capacity among faith-based and community-based social service organizations. Working poor populations are more likely to benefit from programs if they are nearby, easily accessible, and operate with consistency. Yet, we know very little about where faith-based service organizations (FBOs) and secular nonprofits are located, or whether certain types of providers exhibit more stability than others. Drawing on unique survey data on nonprofit service providers, this paper compares the characteristics of FBOs and secular organizations in several urban and rural communities. FBOs that integrate faith into service delivery and secular nonprofit organizations are more accessible to poor populations than FBOs that do not integrate religious elements into service provision. At the same time, I find that large percentages of FBOs and secular nonprofits experience funding volatility and program instability each year. (author abstract)

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