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The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

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  • Individual Author: Friedlander, Daniel; Burtless, Gary
    Reference Type: Book Chapter/Book
    Year: 1995

    With welfare reforms tested in almost every state and plans for a comprehensive federal overall on the horizon, it is increasingly important for Americans to understand how policy changes are likely to affect the lives of welfare recipients. Five Years After tells the story of what happened to the welfare recipients who participated in the influential welfare-to-work experiments conducted by several states in the mid-1980s. The authors review the distinctive goals and procedures of evaluations performed in Arkansas, Baltimore, San Diego, and Virginia, and then examine five years of follow-up data to determine whether the initial positive impact on employment, earnings, and welfare costs held up over time. The results were surprisingly consistent. Low-cost programs that saved money by getting individuals into jobs quickly did little to reduce poverty in the long run. Only higher-cost educational programs enabled welfare recipients to hold down jobs successfully and stay off welfare.

    Five Years After ends speculation about the viability of the first generation of employment...

    With welfare reforms tested in almost every state and plans for a comprehensive federal overall on the horizon, it is increasingly important for Americans to understand how policy changes are likely to affect the lives of welfare recipients. Five Years After tells the story of what happened to the welfare recipients who participated in the influential welfare-to-work experiments conducted by several states in the mid-1980s. The authors review the distinctive goals and procedures of evaluations performed in Arkansas, Baltimore, San Diego, and Virginia, and then examine five years of follow-up data to determine whether the initial positive impact on employment, earnings, and welfare costs held up over time. The results were surprisingly consistent. Low-cost programs that saved money by getting individuals into jobs quickly did little to reduce poverty in the long run. Only higher-cost educational programs enabled welfare recipients to hold down jobs successfully and stay off welfare.

    Five Years After ends speculation about the viability of the first generation of employment programs for welfare recipients, delineates the hard choices that must be made among competing approaches, and provides a well-documented foundation for building more comprehensive programs for the next generation. A sobering tale for welfare reformers of all political persuasions, this book poses a serious challenge to anyone who promises to end welfare dependency by cutting welfare budgets. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Gordon, Anne; James-Burdumy, Susanne; Loeffler, Renee; Guglielmo, Barbara; Kuhns, Carole
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2002

    Most welfare recipients now face a time limit on their eligibility for cash assistance. The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 instituted a five-year lifetime limit on federal cash assistance for most recipients and permitted states, under the new Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) program, to set shorter time limits. Some states, including Virginia, had already begun to implement time limits under waivers. Because time-limited welfare is relatively new, policymakers and the public at large have been concerned about what happens to families who lose TANF benefits because of time limits. Because time limit policies vary widely, this question can only be answered state by state.

    In 1995, Virginia, as part of its welfare reforms, instituted a 24-month time limit on benefits under the Virginia Initiative for Employment not Welfare (VIEW). To provide reliable information on time limit families and what happens to them after reaching the time limit, the Virginia Department of Social Services (VDSS) contracted with Virginia Tech...

    Most welfare recipients now face a time limit on their eligibility for cash assistance. The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 instituted a five-year lifetime limit on federal cash assistance for most recipients and permitted states, under the new Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) program, to set shorter time limits. Some states, including Virginia, had already begun to implement time limits under waivers. Because time-limited welfare is relatively new, policymakers and the public at large have been concerned about what happens to families who lose TANF benefits because of time limits. Because time limit policies vary widely, this question can only be answered state by state.

    In 1995, Virginia, as part of its welfare reforms, instituted a 24-month time limit on benefits under the Virginia Initiative for Employment not Welfare (VIEW). To provide reliable information on time limit families and what happens to them after reaching the time limit, the Virginia Department of Social Services (VDSS) contracted with Virginia Tech and Mathematica Policy Research, Inc. (MPR), for a longitudinal study. The study includes analysis of
    administrative data and of surveys of time limit families conducted about 6 and 18 months after their TANF cases closed.

    This is the second of four planned reports from the Virginia Time Limit Study. It presents 18 months of follow-up data on families whose TANF cases closed because of the time limit in early 1998 (cohort 1) and 6 months of follow-up data for a larger sample that includes families that reached the time limit in early 1998 and early 1999 (cohorts 1 and 2). (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Bloom, Dan; Farrell, Mary; Fink, Barbara; Adams-Ciardullo, Diana
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2002

    Few features of the 1990s welfare reforms have generated as much attention and controversy as time limits on benefit receipt. Time limits first emerged at the state level and subsequently became a central feature of federal welfare policy in the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 (PRWORA), which imposed a 60-month time limit on federally funded assistance for most families.

    To inform discussions about the reauthorization of PRWORA, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services contracted with the Manpower Demonstration Research Corporation (MDRC) to conduct a comprehensive review of what is known about time limits. The project included a survey of state welfare agencies (conducted for MDRC by The Lewin Group), site visits to examine the implementation of time limits, and a review of research on time limits.

    Though a simple idea, time limits raise a host of complex issues in practice. Many experts believe that time limits have played a key role in reshaping welfare, but the knowledge base about this key policy change is still...

    Few features of the 1990s welfare reforms have generated as much attention and controversy as time limits on benefit receipt. Time limits first emerged at the state level and subsequently became a central feature of federal welfare policy in the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 (PRWORA), which imposed a 60-month time limit on federally funded assistance for most families.

    To inform discussions about the reauthorization of PRWORA, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services contracted with the Manpower Demonstration Research Corporation (MDRC) to conduct a comprehensive review of what is known about time limits. The project included a survey of state welfare agencies (conducted for MDRC by The Lewin Group), site visits to examine the implementation of time limits, and a review of research on time limits.

    Though a simple idea, time limits raise a host of complex issues in practice. Many experts believe that time limits have played a key role in reshaping welfare, but the knowledge base about this key policy change is still thin. Few families have reached the federal time limit, and it is too early to draw conclusions about how states will respond as more families reach limits or how families will fare without benefits over the long-term, in varying economic conditions. (author abstract)