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The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

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  • Individual Author: Anderson, Theresa; Kirlin, John A.; Wiseman, Michael
    Reference Type: Conference Paper
    Year: 2012

    The SNAP-UI Data Linkage Project is an effort coordinated by the U.S. Department of Agriculture‘s Economic Research Service (ERS) to link state-level administrative data from the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) and Unemployment Insurance (UI) program to examine the concurrent and sequential patterns in use of these program before and during the Great Recession. The project focuses on calendar years 2006 through 2009 and utilizes data from seven states: California, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Maryland, Michigan, and Texas. The project has illuminated various issues with administrative data linkage, which this paper characterizes as the “Three C‘s” of administrative data: custody, confidentiality, and consistency.

    From the outset, ERS had three primary hypotheses: 1) The low rate of concurrent SNAP-UI receipt in existing data understates the total connection between SNAP and UI benefits because people tend to take up nutrition benefits only after UI claims are exhausted. 2) Both the concurrent and sequential links between...

    The SNAP-UI Data Linkage Project is an effort coordinated by the U.S. Department of Agriculture‘s Economic Research Service (ERS) to link state-level administrative data from the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) and Unemployment Insurance (UI) program to examine the concurrent and sequential patterns in use of these program before and during the Great Recession. The project focuses on calendar years 2006 through 2009 and utilizes data from seven states: California, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Maryland, Michigan, and Texas. The project has illuminated various issues with administrative data linkage, which this paper characterizes as the “Three C‘s” of administrative data: custody, confidentiality, and consistency.

    From the outset, ERS had three primary hypotheses: 1) The low rate of concurrent SNAP-UI receipt in existing data understates the total connection between SNAP and UI benefits because people tend to take up nutrition benefits only after UI claims are exhausted. 2) Both the concurrent and sequential links between SNAP and UI grew during the recession. 3) As the economy worsened, the lag between UI exhaustion and SNAP take-up declined. After the discussion of data issues, preliminary project results are presented (current as of December 2011). These early results confirm the first hypothesis but show that the sequential connection between the programs is not as large as expected. The second hypothesis is confirmed. The third hypothesis is still being explored. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Finifter, David; Prell, Mark A.
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2013

    This report provides nationally representative annual estimates for 2004-09 of households’ multi-program or “joint” participation patterns in both the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) and the Unemployment Insurance (UI) program, including breakouts of household types categorized by household income relative to poverty, race/ethnicity, and education level. SNAP and UI are two strands of the Nation’s recessionary safety net—the subset of safety-net programs for which participation is responsive to the business cycle. Using data from the Annual Social and Economic (ASEC) Supplement to the Current Population Survey, the study found that an estimated 14.4 percent of SNAP households also received UI at some time in 2009 (a recessionary year), an increase of 6.6 percentage points from 2005 (a full-employment year). Conversely, an estimated 13.4 percent of UI households also received SNAP in 2009, an increase of 2.3 percentage points from 2005. SNAP households with lower annual income relative to poverty or with householders who did not complete high school were ...

    This report provides nationally representative annual estimates for 2004-09 of households’ multi-program or “joint” participation patterns in both the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) and the Unemployment Insurance (UI) program, including breakouts of household types categorized by household income relative to poverty, race/ethnicity, and education level. SNAP and UI are two strands of the Nation’s recessionary safety net—the subset of safety-net programs for which participation is responsive to the business cycle. Using data from the Annual Social and Economic (ASEC) Supplement to the Current Population Survey, the study found that an estimated 14.4 percent of SNAP households also received UI at some time in 2009 (a recessionary year), an increase of 6.6 percentage points from 2005 (a full-employment year). Conversely, an estimated 13.4 percent of UI households also received SNAP in 2009, an increase of 2.3 percentage points from 2005. SNAP households with lower annual income relative to poverty or with householders who did not complete high school were relatively less likely to also have UI, indicating that these populations were relatively more likely to rely on SNAP benefits alone (without UI). (author abstract) 

  • Individual Author: Heflin, Colleen M.; Mueser, Peter R.
    Reference Type: Conference Paper
    Year: 2013

    The social safety net has become a critical source of support for low-skill workers as they try to make ends meet during these difficult times. In particular, the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP)1 caseload has grown to 47.7 million people in January 2013—or 15.1 percent of all Americans. Unemployment Insurance (UI) is a significant source of income for those who qualify, and caseloads more than doubled with the onset of the recession, reaching a seasonally adjusted maximum of 6.5 million recipients in June 2009 (U.S. Department of Labor 2013a). Yet, little is known about how the changing economic conditions have affected SNAP caseloads and its interaction with the UI program.

    We examine state administrative data from Florida for SNAP and UI from late 2005 through early 2010. We focus on three research questions:

    1. In the face of caseload growth in both programs, how has participation in UI among SNAP recipients changed?

    2. How has the role of UI insurance changed for SNAP participants, and in particular how have patterns of combined usage...

    The social safety net has become a critical source of support for low-skill workers as they try to make ends meet during these difficult times. In particular, the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP)1 caseload has grown to 47.7 million people in January 2013—or 15.1 percent of all Americans. Unemployment Insurance (UI) is a significant source of income for those who qualify, and caseloads more than doubled with the onset of the recession, reaching a seasonally adjusted maximum of 6.5 million recipients in June 2009 (U.S. Department of Labor 2013a). Yet, little is known about how the changing economic conditions have affected SNAP caseloads and its interaction with the UI program.

    We examine state administrative data from Florida for SNAP and UI from late 2005 through early 2010. We focus on three research questions:

    1. In the face of caseload growth in both programs, how has participation in UI among SNAP recipients changed?

    2. How has the role of UI insurance changed for SNAP participants, and in particular how have patterns of combined usage evolved during this period?

    3. What roles do labor market distress and legislated changes play in explaining observed patterns? (author introduction)

    A copy of the presentation slides summarizing this paper was given at the 2013 NAWRS Conference are also available.

  • Individual Author: Gould-Werth, Alix; Shaefer, H. Luke
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2014

    This paper uses panel data from the nationally representative Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) from years 2000 through 2011, to examine changes in the prevalence and character of joint participation in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) and Unemployment Insurance (UI) among job losers during the Great Recession. Descriptive as well as multivariate analyses are presented. Descriptive statistics examining changes following the onset of the Great Recession indicate heightened use of UI and SNAP; a change in the sequencing of program entrance with joint participants becoming less likely to access SNAP first (also notable is the high incidence of joint participants who began accessing SNAP while still employed both pre- and post-recession); and the composition of the group joint participants becoming more advantaged across a range of demographic characteristics.

    Our multivariate results suggest that the extended length of unemployment spells following the onset of the Great Recession drives much of the increase in joint participation. The...

    This paper uses panel data from the nationally representative Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) from years 2000 through 2011, to examine changes in the prevalence and character of joint participation in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) and Unemployment Insurance (UI) among job losers during the Great Recession. Descriptive as well as multivariate analyses are presented. Descriptive statistics examining changes following the onset of the Great Recession indicate heightened use of UI and SNAP; a change in the sequencing of program entrance with joint participants becoming less likely to access SNAP first (also notable is the high incidence of joint participants who began accessing SNAP while still employed both pre- and post-recession); and the composition of the group joint participants becoming more advantaged across a range of demographic characteristics.

    Our multivariate results suggest that the extended length of unemployment spells following the onset of the Great Recession drives much of the increase in joint participation. The extension of UI benefits; the modernization of UI eligibility criteria; and the liberalization of SNAP eligibility requirements account for the remaining increase in joint participation. These results suggest that—through countercyclical design and through legislative action—our safety net programs have been responsive to a changed macroeconomic context and changing needs of the target populations of UI and SNAP. Further research, however, is called for to examine the sizable group of unemployed Americans who do not access help from either program. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: O'Leary, Christopher J. ; Kline, Kenneth J.
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2014

    During the Great Recession, both the Supplementary Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) and the federal-state unemployment insurance (UI) program experienced dramatic increases in participation. Using Michigan program administrative data on all SNAP (2006–2011) recipients and all UI (2001–2010) applicants, we examine SNAP use before and after UI application. Both past and future receipts of SNAP are highly negatively correlated with meeting UI income and job separation eligibility requirements. Unemployment insurance applicants with insufficient wage credits or job separations because of quitting or employer discharge are much more likely to have received SNAP in the past. Furthermore, such UI applicants are also more likely to receive SNAP soon after applying for UI benefits. The data also indicate that as of the start of the Great Recession, UI applicants who received SNAP subsequent to UI filing began receiving those benefits sooner compared with UI applicants prior to the downturn. The models also suggest that SNAP receipt after UI application was higher among ineligible UI...

    During the Great Recession, both the Supplementary Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) and the federal-state unemployment insurance (UI) program experienced dramatic increases in participation. Using Michigan program administrative data on all SNAP (2006–2011) recipients and all UI (2001–2010) applicants, we examine SNAP use before and after UI application. Both past and future receipts of SNAP are highly negatively correlated with meeting UI income and job separation eligibility requirements. Unemployment insurance applicants with insufficient wage credits or job separations because of quitting or employer discharge are much more likely to have received SNAP in the past. Furthermore, such UI applicants are also more likely to receive SNAP soon after applying for UI benefits. The data also indicate that as of the start of the Great Recession, UI applicants who received SNAP subsequent to UI filing began receiving those benefits sooner compared with UI applicants prior to the downturn. The models also suggest that SNAP receipt after UI application was higher among ineligible UI applicants, applicants who quit or were fired from prior jobs, those with prior recent SNAP receipt, prime age workers, females, those with education of less than a high school diploma, those having three to five years’ prior job tenure, and those with a separating job in retail trade, health care, or hospitality. (Author abstract)

     

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