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The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

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  • Individual Author: Osilla, Karen O.; Van Busum, Kristin R.
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2012

    As large numbers of service members and veterans, many with serious injuries, return from Iraq and Afghanistan, it is critical to examine the types of return-to-work resources available to help wounded warriors obtain and retain gainful employment and to understand the effectiveness of these programs. RAND researchers examined existing return-to-work policies and programs for military men and women with service-related injuries and conducted an initial review of the available literature on return-to-work resources, focusing when possible on policies and programs specifically available for service members and veterans with physical injuries. The Department of Defense and the Department of Veterans Affairs should seek to build the evidence base concerning return-to-work programs, in order to understand which programs are most effective, which provide a return on investment, and what strategies are needed to encourage service members and veterans to utilize them (e.g., coordination). The DoD and the VA have been and will continue to be held accountable for the...

    As large numbers of service members and veterans, many with serious injuries, return from Iraq and Afghanistan, it is critical to examine the types of return-to-work resources available to help wounded warriors obtain and retain gainful employment and to understand the effectiveness of these programs. RAND researchers examined existing return-to-work policies and programs for military men and women with service-related injuries and conducted an initial review of the available literature on return-to-work resources, focusing when possible on policies and programs specifically available for service members and veterans with physical injuries. The Department of Defense and the Department of Veterans Affairs should seek to build the evidence base concerning return-to-work programs, in order to understand which programs are most effective, which provide a return on investment, and what strategies are needed to encourage service members and veterans to utilize them (e.g., coordination). The DoD and the VA have been and will continue to be held accountable for the successful reintegration of service members and veterans who have been injured while serving. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Cancian, Maria; Danziger, Sheldon
    Reference Type: Book Chapter/Book
    Year: 2009

    Poverty declined significantly in the decade after Lyndon Johnson’s 1964 declaration of “War on Poverty.” Dramatically increased federal funding for education and training programs, social security benefits, other income support programs, and a growing economy reduced poverty and raised expectations that income poverty could be eliminated within a generation. Yet the official poverty rate has never fallen below its 1973 level and remains higher than the rates in many other advanced economies. In this book, editors Maria Cancian and Sheldon Danziger and leading poverty researchers assess why the War on Poverty was not won and analyze the most promising strategies to reduce poverty in the twenty-first century economy.

    Changing Poverty, Changing Policies documents how economic, social, demographic, and public policy changes since the early 1970s have altered who is poor and where antipoverty initiatives have kept pace or fallen behind. Part I shows that little progress has been made in reducing poverty, except among the elderly, in the last three decades. The...

    Poverty declined significantly in the decade after Lyndon Johnson’s 1964 declaration of “War on Poverty.” Dramatically increased federal funding for education and training programs, social security benefits, other income support programs, and a growing economy reduced poverty and raised expectations that income poverty could be eliminated within a generation. Yet the official poverty rate has never fallen below its 1973 level and remains higher than the rates in many other advanced economies. In this book, editors Maria Cancian and Sheldon Danziger and leading poverty researchers assess why the War on Poverty was not won and analyze the most promising strategies to reduce poverty in the twenty-first century economy.

    Changing Poverty, Changing Policies documents how economic, social, demographic, and public policy changes since the early 1970s have altered who is poor and where antipoverty initiatives have kept pace or fallen behind. Part I shows that little progress has been made in reducing poverty, except among the elderly, in the last three decades. The chapters examine how changing labor market opportunities for less-educated workers have increased their risk of poverty (Rebecca Blank), and how family structure changes (Maria Cancian and Deborah Reed) and immigration have affected poverty (Steven Raphael and Eugene Smolensky). Part II assesses the ways childhood poverty influences adult outcomes. Markus Jäntti finds that poor American children are more likely to be poor adults than are children in many other industrialized countries. Part III focuses on current antipoverty policies and possible alternatives. Jane Waldfogel demonstrates that policies in other countries—such as sick leave, subsidized child care, and schedule flexibility—help low-wage parents better balance work and family responsibilities. Part IV considers how rethinking and redefining poverty might take antipoverty policies in new directions. Mary Jo Bane assesses the politics of poverty since the 1996 welfare reform act. Robert Haveman argues that income-based poverty measures should be expanded, as they have been in Europe, to include social exclusion and multiple dimensions of material hardships.

    Changing Poverty, Changing Policies shows that thoughtful policy reforms can reduce poverty and promote opportunities for poor workers and their families. The authors’ focus on pragmatic measures that have real possibilities of being implemented in the United States not only provides vital knowledge about what works but real hope for change. (author abstract)

    Table of Contents:

    Contributors

    Acknowledgments

    • Chapter 1: Changing Poverty and Changing Antipoverty Policies, Maria Cancian and Sheldon Danziger

    PART 1 ECONOMIC CHANGES, DEMOGRAPHIC CHANGES, AND TRENDS IN POVERTY

    • Chapter 2: Poverty Levels and Trends in Comparative Perspective, Daniel R. Meyer and Geoffrey L. Wallace
    • Chapter 3: Economic Change and the Structure of Opportunity for Less-skilled Workers, Rebecca M. Blank
    • Chapter 4: Family Structure, Childbearing and Parental Employment: Implications for the Level and Trend in Poverty, Maria Cancian and Deborah Reed
    • Chapter 5: Immigration and Poverty in the United States, Steven Raphael and Eugene Smolensky

    PART 2 MOBILITY AND ITS CONSEQUENCES

    • Chapter 6: Enduring Influences of Childhood Poverty, Katherine Magnuson and Elizabeth Votruba-Drzal
    • Chapter 7: Mobility in the United States in Comparative Perspective, Markus Jäntti

    PART 3 THE EVOLUTION AND SCOPE OF ANTIPOVERTY POLICIES

    • Chapter 8: Trends in Income Support, John Karl Scholz, Robert Moffitt, and Benjamin Cowan
    • Chapter 9: The Role of Family Policies in Antipoverty, Jane Waldfogel
    • Chapter 10: Improving Education Outcomes for Poor Children, Brian A. Jacob and Jens Ludwig
    • Chapter 11: Workforce Development as an Antipoverty Strategy: What Do We Know? What Should We Do?, Harry J. Holzer
    • Chapter 12: Healthcare for the Poor: For Whom, What Care and Whose Responsibility?, Katherine Swartz

    PART 4 THE POLITICS OF POVERTY AND ITS MEANING IN A RICH COUNTRY

    • Chapter 13: Poverty, Politics, and Policy, Mary Jo Bane
    • Chapter 14: What Does it Mean to be Poor in a Rich Society?, Robert Haveman

    (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Hearne, Jane
    Year: 2005

    Medicaid is a means-tested entitlement program that is largely designed and administered by states under broad federal rules. The programs are jointly financed by federal and state funds. Federal contributions to each state are based on a state's willingness to finance covered medical services and a matching formula. The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS), within the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), is responsible for federal oversight of the program. In FY2003, preliminary federal and state spending on Medicaid reached $275.5 billion, exceeding Medicare payments, net of premiums, by over $15 billion. 

    Medicaid coverage for non-elderly, non-disabled adults and children is provided to people who qualify through a number of pathways, some of which are required under federal law, others are optional for states. State programs are required to provide coverage to families based on welfare program rules in effect in 1996. Coverage for children goes beyond those often very low financial criteria through a combination of other mandatory and...

    Medicaid is a means-tested entitlement program that is largely designed and administered by states under broad federal rules. The programs are jointly financed by federal and state funds. Federal contributions to each state are based on a state's willingness to finance covered medical services and a matching formula. The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS), within the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), is responsible for federal oversight of the program. In FY2003, preliminary federal and state spending on Medicaid reached $275.5 billion, exceeding Medicare payments, net of premiums, by over $15 billion. 

    Medicaid coverage for non-elderly, non-disabled adults and children is provided to people who qualify through a number of pathways, some of which are required under federal law, others are optional for states. State programs are required to provide coverage to families based on welfare program rules in effect in 1996. Coverage for children goes beyond those often very low financial criteria through a combination of other mandatory and optional pathways. Low income pregnant women can also receive Medicaid coverage through both mandatory and optional pathways. In addition, a number of other optional pathways exist for special groups of people who are not considered disabled because they do not have a disability as defined under the Supplemental Security Income (SSI) program rules. Some of those groups include, for example, certain women with breast or cervical cancer, uninsured individuals diagnosed with tuberculosis, people who become impoverished by their medical costs, and certain immigrants. 

    Variation across the state-based programs is the rule. Income eligibility levels and services covered vary, and the method for, and amount of, reimbursement for services differ from state to state. Medicaid is targeted to individuals with low-income, but not all of the poor are eligible, and not all of those who are covered are poor. For Medicaid-covered children and families, primary and acute care is often delivered through managed care organizations, while elderly enrollees and those with disabilities more often obtain such care on a fee-for-service basis. In recent years, more and more states have implemented a variety of major program changes using special waiver authority. 

    This report describes federal Medicaid eligibility rules for children and adults but does not address eligibility pathways for individuals qualifying on the basis of having a disability or for persons who are age 65 and over. This report is one of a number of CRS reports on Medicaid and will be updated periodically. (author abstract)

     

  • Individual Author: Gimm, Gilbert; Weathers, Bob
    Reference Type: Stakeholder Resource
    Year: 2007

    The Demonstration to Maintain Independence and Employment (DMIE), a grant program administered by the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, awards funds to states to develop, implement, and evaluate interventions that are intended to improve health care coverage and employment services for working adults with potentially disabling conditions such as diabetes and mental illness. Authorized by the Ticket to Work and Work Incentives Improvement Act of 1999, the DMIE allows states to provide Medicaid-equivalent coverage or “wrap-around” coverage, which supplements existing health insurance. They also may offer employment-support and case management services that increase the likelihood of sustained employment. Four states were approved as of June 2007 under the most recent DMIE solicitation—Hawaii, Kansas, Minnesota, and Texas.

    This issue brief, the sixth in a series on workers with disabilities, reviews the rationale for the DMIE, the interventions in the four most recent DMIE states, the DMIE evaluation, and next steps in disseminating information about the effects...

    The Demonstration to Maintain Independence and Employment (DMIE), a grant program administered by the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, awards funds to states to develop, implement, and evaluate interventions that are intended to improve health care coverage and employment services for working adults with potentially disabling conditions such as diabetes and mental illness. Authorized by the Ticket to Work and Work Incentives Improvement Act of 1999, the DMIE allows states to provide Medicaid-equivalent coverage or “wrap-around” coverage, which supplements existing health insurance. They also may offer employment-support and case management services that increase the likelihood of sustained employment. Four states were approved as of June 2007 under the most recent DMIE solicitation—Hawaii, Kansas, Minnesota, and Texas.

    This issue brief, the sixth in a series on workers with disabilities, reviews the rationale for the DMIE, the interventions in the four most recent DMIE states, the DMIE evaluation, and next steps in disseminating information about the effects of these innovative demonstration projects. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Derr, Michelle K.; Hill, Heather; Pavetti, LaDonna
    Reference Type: Report, Stakeholder Resource
    Year: 2000

    This guide, prepared by Mathematica Policy Research, Inc., for the Administration for Children and Families of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, examines mental health conditions among welfare recipients. It is intended to 1) provide an overview for welfare administrators of the common mental health conditions and the mental health system generally, 2) discuss specifically the types and prevalence of mental health disorders among welfare recipients, and 3) offer strategies for linking welfare recipients with mental health treatment and designing employment services to move these individuals into work. The guide has four sections:

    • Section I: The Prevalence of Mental Health Conditions and Their Influence on Employment provides definitions for mental health and mental illness as outlined in the U.S. Surgeon General’s report and in the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). It also provides data on the prevalence and types of mental health disorders among the general and welfare populations, and examines how mental health may influence the probability of...

    This guide, prepared by Mathematica Policy Research, Inc., for the Administration for Children and Families of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, examines mental health conditions among welfare recipients. It is intended to 1) provide an overview for welfare administrators of the common mental health conditions and the mental health system generally, 2) discuss specifically the types and prevalence of mental health disorders among welfare recipients, and 3) offer strategies for linking welfare recipients with mental health treatment and designing employment services to move these individuals into work. The guide has four sections:

    • Section I: The Prevalence of Mental Health Conditions and Their Influence on Employment provides definitions for mental health and mental illness as outlined in the U.S. Surgeon General’s report and in the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). It also provides data on the prevalence and types of mental health disorders among the general and welfare populations, and examines how mental health may influence the probability of employment.

    • Section II: Strategies and Resources for Addressing Mental Health Conditions offers a map for understanding the available treatment options, the state and local mental health systems, and the options for paying for mental health treatment. This section also covers the difficulties low-income families may have in accessing treatment.

    • Section III: Opportunities for Welfare Offices to Address the Needs of Welfare Recipients with Mental Health Conditions provides suggestions to staff and administrators of welfare offices on strategies for linking their clients with mental health services. The section begins with guidance on developing a screening process in the welfare office for mental health conditions and then covers the ways to link clients with existing services, use TANF funds to expand existing services, and create new services within the welfare office.

    • Section IV: Meeting the Challenges to Developing Services for Welfare Recipients with Mental Health Conditions outlines some potential challenges that welfare offices working to address their clients’ mental health conditions may confront and suggestions for addressing these challenges. These suggestions include defining clear goals for the welfare office, creating a policy environment that supports participation in mental health services, managing interagency differences in goals or approaches, and educating and training staff. (author abstract)

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