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The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

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  • Individual Author: Council of State Governments, Reentry Policy Council
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2005

    Nearly all of the 2.1 million people incarcerated in the United States will eventually be released. Re-entry is the process of transition that these individuals – predominantly male and disproportionately nonwhite – make from prison or jail to the community. While prisoner re-entry has occurred for as long as correctional facilities have existed, its current scale is larger than ever before:

    • The number of people released from prison has increased 350 percent over the last 20 years.
    • Nearly 650,000 people are released annually from prisons in this country.
    • Over 7 million different individuals are released each year from US jails.
    • About 1 in 32 adults in this country was in jail or prison, or on parole or probation, in 2002.
    • Approximately 2 out of every 3 people released from prison in the US are re-arrested within 3 years of their release.

    Budget crunches in every state have made it nearly impossible for lawmakers and governors to address this issue by simply building more prisons and jails; to control the soaring costs...

    Nearly all of the 2.1 million people incarcerated in the United States will eventually be released. Re-entry is the process of transition that these individuals – predominantly male and disproportionately nonwhite – make from prison or jail to the community. While prisoner re-entry has occurred for as long as correctional facilities have existed, its current scale is larger than ever before:

    • The number of people released from prison has increased 350 percent over the last 20 years.
    • Nearly 650,000 people are released annually from prisons in this country.
    • Over 7 million different individuals are released each year from US jails.
    • About 1 in 32 adults in this country was in jail or prison, or on parole or probation, in 2002.
    • Approximately 2 out of every 3 people released from prison in the US are re-arrested within 3 years of their release.

    Budget crunches in every state have made it nearly impossible for lawmakers and governors to address this issue by simply building more prisons and jails; to control the soaring costs of corrections in their respective jurisdictions, policymakers and elected officials must find ways to ensure that the transition people make from prison or jail to the community is safe and successful. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Meit, Michael; Hafford, Carol; Fromknecht, Catharine; Knudson, Alana; Gilbert, Tess; Miesfeld, Noelle
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2016

    This report presents key findings from the evaluation of the first round of the Tribal Health Profession Opportunity Grants (HPOG) Program. These findings show that all five of the Tribal HPOG grantees established programs that led to healthcare training completion and employment. The report includes findings on programs' structures, processes, outcomes, and insights related to these findings. The evaluation team worked to conduct a culturally responsive evaluation by receiving input from partners, advisors, and grantees throughout the evaluation. (author abstract)

    This report presents key findings from the evaluation of the first round of the Tribal Health Profession Opportunity Grants (HPOG) Program. These findings show that all five of the Tribal HPOG grantees established programs that led to healthcare training completion and employment. The report includes findings on programs' structures, processes, outcomes, and insights related to these findings. The evaluation team worked to conduct a culturally responsive evaluation by receiving input from partners, advisors, and grantees throughout the evaluation. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Michalopoulos, Charles; Edin, Kathryn; Fink, Barbara; Landriscina, Mirella; Polit, Denise F.; Polyne, Judy C.; Richburg-Hayes, Lashawn; Seith, David; Verma, Nandita
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2003

    The 1996 welfare reform law called for profound changes in welfare policy, including a five year time limit on federally funded cash assistance (known as Temporary Assistance for Needy Families, or TANF), stricter work requirements, and greater flexibility for states in designing and managing programs. The law’s supporters hoped that it would spark innovation and reduce welfare use; critics feared that it would lead to cuts in benefits and to widespread suffering. Whether the reform succeeds or fails depends largely on what happens in big cities, where poverty and welfare receipt are most concentrated. This report — one of a series from MDRC’s Project on Devolution and Urban Change — examines the specific ways in which reform unfolded in Philadelphia. The study uses field research, state records, surveys and ethnographic interviews of welfare recipients, and indicators of social and economic trends to assess TANF’s implementation and effects. Because of the strong economy and ample funding for services in the late 1990s, the study captures welfare reform in the best of times but...

    The 1996 welfare reform law called for profound changes in welfare policy, including a five year time limit on federally funded cash assistance (known as Temporary Assistance for Needy Families, or TANF), stricter work requirements, and greater flexibility for states in designing and managing programs. The law’s supporters hoped that it would spark innovation and reduce welfare use; critics feared that it would lead to cuts in benefits and to widespread suffering. Whether the reform succeeds or fails depends largely on what happens in big cities, where poverty and welfare receipt are most concentrated. This report — one of a series from MDRC’s Project on Devolution and Urban Change — examines the specific ways in which reform unfolded in Philadelphia. The study uses field research, state records, surveys and ethnographic interviews of welfare recipients, and indicators of social and economic trends to assess TANF’s implementation and effects. Because of the strong economy and ample funding for services in the late 1990s, the study captures welfare reform in the best of times but focuses on the poorest families and neighborhoods. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Polit, Denise; Widom, Rebecca; Edin, Kathryn; Bowie, Stan; London, Andrew; Scott, Ellen; Valenzuela, Abel
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2001

    Since 1996, when Congress passed the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act · the "welfare reform" law · welfare caseloads have dropped sharply, and the number of single mothers who work has grown dramatically. But how have poor mothers fared, now that they are playing by the new welfare rules and working?

    This report describes the experiences of women from poor urban neighborhoods who once relied on public assistance and entered the labor market. It presents findings from the Project on Devolution and Urban Change, a study of the implementation and effects of welfare reform in the counties encompassing four big cities: Cleveland, Los Angeles, Miami, and Philadelphia. This report draws on representative survey data and in-depth ethnographic interviews from each of those sites to compare the work experiences and life circumstances of four groups of women defined by employment status and history.

    In May 1995, the 3,900 survey respondents were receiving public assistance and living in high-poverty neighborhoods. Three to four years later, they...

    Since 1996, when Congress passed the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act · the "welfare reform" law · welfare caseloads have dropped sharply, and the number of single mothers who work has grown dramatically. But how have poor mothers fared, now that they are playing by the new welfare rules and working?

    This report describes the experiences of women from poor urban neighborhoods who once relied on public assistance and entered the labor market. It presents findings from the Project on Devolution and Urban Change, a study of the implementation and effects of welfare reform in the counties encompassing four big cities: Cleveland, Los Angeles, Miami, and Philadelphia. This report draws on representative survey data and in-depth ethnographic interviews from each of those sites to compare the work experiences and life circumstances of four groups of women defined by employment status and history.

    In May 1995, the 3,900 survey respondents were receiving public assistance and living in high-poverty neighborhoods. Three to four years later, they were interviewed about their recent employment experiences: Three-quarters had worked in the past two years, and about half were working at the time of the interview. Respondents' stories from the ethnographic interviews are interwoven throughout the report to complement and augment the survey findings. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Blank, Rebecca M.; Danziger, Sheldon H.; Schoeni, Robert F.
    Reference Type: Book Chapter/Book
    Year: 2006

    Over the last three decades, large-scale economic developments, such as technological change, the decline in unionization, and changing skill requirements, have exacted their biggest toll on low-wage workers. These workers often possess few marketable skills and few resources with which to support themselves during periods of economic transition. In Working and Poor, a distinguished group of economists and policy experts, headlined by editors Rebecca Blank, Sheldon Danziger, and Robert Schoeni, examine how economic and policy changes over the last twenty-five years have affected the well-being of low-wage workers and their families.

    Working and Poor examines every facet of the economic well-being of less-skilled workers, from employment and earnings opportunities to consumption behavior and social assistance policies. Rebecca Blank and Heidi Schierholz document the different trends in work and wages among less-skilled women and men. Between 1979 and 2003, labor force participation rose rapidly for these women, along with more modest increases in wages, while among the...

    Over the last three decades, large-scale economic developments, such as technological change, the decline in unionization, and changing skill requirements, have exacted their biggest toll on low-wage workers. These workers often possess few marketable skills and few resources with which to support themselves during periods of economic transition. In Working and Poor, a distinguished group of economists and policy experts, headlined by editors Rebecca Blank, Sheldon Danziger, and Robert Schoeni, examine how economic and policy changes over the last twenty-five years have affected the well-being of low-wage workers and their families.

    Working and Poor examines every facet of the economic well-being of less-skilled workers, from employment and earnings opportunities to consumption behavior and social assistance policies. Rebecca Blank and Heidi Schierholz document the different trends in work and wages among less-skilled women and men. Between 1979 and 2003, labor force participation rose rapidly for these women, along with more modest increases in wages, while among the men both employment and wages fell. David Card and John DiNardo review the evidence on how technological changes have affected less-skilled workers and conclude that the effect has been smaller than many observers claim. Philip Levine examines the effectiveness of the Unemployment Insurance program during recessions. He finds that the program’s eligibility rules, which deny benefits to workers who have not met minimum earnings requirements, exclude the very people who require help most and should be adjusted to provide for those with the highest need. On the other hand, Therese J. McGuire and David F. Merriman show that government help remains a valuable source of support during economic downturns. They find that during the most recent recession in 2001, when state budgets were stretched thin, legislatures resisted political pressure to cut spending for the poor.

    Working and Poor provides a valuable analysis of the role that public policy changes can play in improving the plight of the working poor. A comprehensive analysis of trends over the last twenty-five years, this book provides an invaluable reference for the public discussion of work and poverty in America. (author abstract)

    Table of Contents

    INTRODUCTION

    Work and Poverty During the Past Quarter-Century Rebecca M. Blank, Sheldon H. Danziger, and Robert F. Schoeni

    PART I WHAT IS CHANGING IN THE LABOR MARKET FOR LOW-SKILLED WORKERS, AND WHY?

    Chapter 1 Exploring Gender Differences in Employment and Wage Trends among Less-skilled Workers Rebecca M. Blank and Heidi Shierholz
    Chapter 2 Wage Trends among Disadvantaged Minorities George J. Borjas

    PART II HOW DO ECONOMIC TRENDS AFFECT LESS-SKILLED WORKERS?
    Chapter 3 The Macroeconomy and Determinants of the Earnings of Less-skilled Workers Robert E. Hall
    Chapter 4 The Impact of Technological Change on Low-wage Workers: A Review David Card and John DiNardo
    Chapter 5 The Changing Pattern of Wage Growth for Low-skilled Workers Eric French, Bhashkar Mazumder, and Christopher Taber

    PART III HOW DO MACROECONOMIC CHANGES INFLUENCE WELL-BEING MEASURES BEYOND INCOME?
    Chapter 6 The Level and Composition of Consumption over the Business Cycle: The Role of "Quasi-Fixed" Expenditures Kerwin Kofi Charles and Melvin Stephens Jr.
    Chapter 7 Recent Trends in Resource Sharing among the Poor Steven J. Haider and Kathleen McGarry
    Chapter 8 Economic Conditions and Children's Living Arrangements Rebecca A. London and Robert W. Fairlie

    PART IV HOW DO POLICY CHANGES INTERACT WITH THE ECONOMY AND ECONOMIC WELL-BEING?
    Chapter 9 How do Tax Policies Affect Low-income Workers? Kevin A. Hassett and Anne Moore
    Chapter 10 State Spending on Social Assistance Programs over the Business Cycle Therese J. McGuire and David F. Merriman
    Chapter 11 Temporary Agency Employment: A Way Out of Poverty? David Autor and Susan Houseman
    Chapter 12 Child Support and the Economy Maria Cancian and Daniel R. Meyer
    Chapter 13 Unemployment Insurance over the Business Cycle: Does it Meet the Needs of Less-skilled Workers? Phillip B. Levine
    Chapter 14 How is Health Insurance Affected by the Economy? Public and Private Coverage among Low-skilled Adults in the 1990s Helen Levy

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