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The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

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The SSRC Library includes resources which may be available only via journal subscription. The SSRC may be able to provide users without subscription access to a particular journal with a single use copy of the full text.  Please email the SSRC with your request.

The SSRC Library collection is constantly growing and new research is added regularly. We welcome our users to submit a library item to help us grow our collection in response to your needs.


  • Individual Author: Lee, Kyoung Hag; Yoon, Dong Pil
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2012

    In this study the authors explore racial disparities in the uses of sanctions and the different impact of sanctions on the economic well-being of African American and White TANF leavers. The study analyzed 907 African American and 1,336 White welfare leavers from the 1999 and 2002 data of the NSAF. Chi-square results show that sanctions are more significantly imposed to African Americans than Whites. On the other hand, regression results show that the impact of sanctions on the employment and family income of African Americans and Whites are comparable. Implications suggest that states need to have an appropriate sanction process, training programs for caseworkers, or other policy changes to reduce the racial disparities. (Author abstract)

    In this study the authors explore racial disparities in the uses of sanctions and the different impact of sanctions on the economic well-being of African American and White TANF leavers. The study analyzed 907 African American and 1,336 White welfare leavers from the 1999 and 2002 data of the NSAF. Chi-square results show that sanctions are more significantly imposed to African Americans than Whites. On the other hand, regression results show that the impact of sanctions on the employment and family income of African Americans and Whites are comparable. Implications suggest that states need to have an appropriate sanction process, training programs for caseworkers, or other policy changes to reduce the racial disparities. (Author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Monnat, Shannon M.
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2010

    This article investigates the individual and contextual roles of race on welfare sanctions: benefit cuts for failing to comply with work or other behavioral requirements under the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families program. Using six years of federal administrative data, I advance previous welfare research by providing a nationally representative analysis of participant-, county-, and state-level predictors of welfare sanctioning. Using theories of racial classification, racialized social systems, and racial threat as guiding frameworks, I find that black and Latina women are at a greater risk of being sanctioned than white women. Further, although odds of a sanction are slightly reduced for black women living in counties with greater percentages of blacks, the opposite holds for Latinas, who are at an increased risk of being sanctioned in counties with greater percentages of Latinos. (Author abstract)

    This article investigates the individual and contextual roles of race on welfare sanctions: benefit cuts for failing to comply with work or other behavioral requirements under the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families program. Using six years of federal administrative data, I advance previous welfare research by providing a nationally representative analysis of participant-, county-, and state-level predictors of welfare sanctioning. Using theories of racial classification, racialized social systems, and racial threat as guiding frameworks, I find that black and Latina women are at a greater risk of being sanctioned than white women. Further, although odds of a sanction are slightly reduced for black women living in counties with greater percentages of blacks, the opposite holds for Latinas, who are at an increased risk of being sanctioned in counties with greater percentages of Latinos. (Author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Davis, Dana-Ain; Aparicio, Ana; Jacobs, Audrey; Kochiyama, Akemi; Queeley, Andrea; Thompson, Beverley Yuen; Mullings, Leith
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2002

    In 1996, President Clinton signed the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act, popularly known as welfare reform. Title I of this legislation replaced the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) entitlement program with Temporary Assistance for Needy Family (TANF). TANF is a block grant from the federal government that provides states with an annual Family Assistance grant. There is a five-year lifetime limit on the receipt of TANF funds and after two years all able-bodied recipients must work full time for their benefits.

    Conservative and neo-liberal politicians have lauded the success of welfare reform for decreasing the welfare rolls in the media. However, recent scholarship has pointed to the disproportionate impact of welfare reform policy on communities of color. Economic vulnerabilities due to race and ethnicity have long been one aspect of poverty. The racial imbalance of who constitutes the poor has been accentuated by welfare reform policy, as immigrants, Latina, African American and Asian women absorb the punitive aspects of...

    In 1996, President Clinton signed the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act, popularly known as welfare reform. Title I of this legislation replaced the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) entitlement program with Temporary Assistance for Needy Family (TANF). TANF is a block grant from the federal government that provides states with an annual Family Assistance grant. There is a five-year lifetime limit on the receipt of TANF funds and after two years all able-bodied recipients must work full time for their benefits.

    Conservative and neo-liberal politicians have lauded the success of welfare reform for decreasing the welfare rolls in the media. However, recent scholarship has pointed to the disproportionate impact of welfare reform policy on communities of color. Economic vulnerabilities due to race and ethnicity have long been one aspect of poverty. The racial imbalance of who constitutes the poor has been accentuated by welfare reform policy, as immigrants, Latina, African American and Asian women absorb the punitive aspects of welfare reform.

    To address these issues, the New York State Scholar Practitioner Team sponsored by the W.K. Kellogg Foundation’s Devolution Initiative developed the Community Outreach and Research Project. This project was organized in concert with three other New York State Devolution Initiative grantees: The Children’s Defense Fund-NY, Inc; Citizens Action of New York; and Citizens’ Committee for Children. The project also benefited from the support of the New York Immigration Coalition. (Author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Cheng, Tyrone C.
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2009

    This study investigates whether race or ethnicity is a factor that affects the chances of Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) recipients receiving three transitional supportive services—child-care subsidy, transitional Medicaid, and transportation/rent assistance—as well as being sanctioned. A sample of 676 adult parents who left TANF in 1998 or 1999 was analyzed with logistic regressions, using a national data set, The National Survey of America's Families (NASF) 1999. The results show that Hispanic recipients were less likely than White recipients to receive transportation/rent assistance and that African American recipients were less likely than White recipients to receive transitional Medicaid. Also, a state's high percentage of Hispanics reduced recipients' chances of receiving any three transitional support services in that state, and African American recipients were more likely than White recipients to be sanctioned. Transportation/rent assistance was likely to be provided to those who were single parents, and having little work experience was...

    This study investigates whether race or ethnicity is a factor that affects the chances of Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) recipients receiving three transitional supportive services—child-care subsidy, transitional Medicaid, and transportation/rent assistance—as well as being sanctioned. A sample of 676 adult parents who left TANF in 1998 or 1999 was analyzed with logistic regressions, using a national data set, The National Survey of America's Families (NASF) 1999. The results show that Hispanic recipients were less likely than White recipients to receive transportation/rent assistance and that African American recipients were less likely than White recipients to receive transitional Medicaid. Also, a state's high percentage of Hispanics reduced recipients' chances of receiving any three transitional support services in that state, and African American recipients were more likely than White recipients to be sanctioned. Transportation/rent assistance was likely to be provided to those who were single parents, and having little work experience was most likely a participant's reason for being sanctioned. Policy implications are discussed. (Author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Mulligan-Hansel, Kathleen; Fendt, Pamela
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2002

    Five years after Wisconsin instituted Wisconsin Works (W-2) – one of the strictest welfare replacement programs in the U.S. – W-2 remains one of the primary models for welfare policy reform across the nation. However, in various assessments of W-2, the substantial change in the racial and ethnic demographics of the caseload has been largely overlooked. Wisconsin’s AFDC programs historically served a significant proportion of white participants, but the under W-2, majority of the state caseload now is made up of people of color. This suggests that there may be a disparity in the impact of the program that is linked to participants’ racial or ethnic identity. Discrepancies in the level of support for families could alter the level of success clients have in achieving self-sufficiency.

    One feature of the W-2 program is a significant shift to provider and caseworker discretion in the provision of support services. Case-managers make numerous decisions that determine what supports and services families will receive and what they must do in return. These decisions include...

    Five years after Wisconsin instituted Wisconsin Works (W-2) – one of the strictest welfare replacement programs in the U.S. – W-2 remains one of the primary models for welfare policy reform across the nation. However, in various assessments of W-2, the substantial change in the racial and ethnic demographics of the caseload has been largely overlooked. Wisconsin’s AFDC programs historically served a significant proportion of white participants, but the under W-2, majority of the state caseload now is made up of people of color. This suggests that there may be a disparity in the impact of the program that is linked to participants’ racial or ethnic identity. Discrepancies in the level of support for families could alter the level of success clients have in achieving self-sufficiency.

    One feature of the W-2 program is a significant shift to provider and caseworker discretion in the provision of support services. Case-managers make numerous decisions that determine what supports and services families will receive and what they must do in return. These decisions include whether to allow a family to enroll in W-2, what placement the family will receive, what kinds of education and supervised work activity to assign, and whether a family loses benefits because of absences from assigned work activity. In order to determine if service levels are affected by ethnicity or race, this report examines data from the Department of Workforce Development on the use of sanctions against W-2 participants to see if there is a differential in the rate of sanctions against Hispanic, African-American and white clients. If disparities do, in fact, exist, it would suggest that similar discrepancies in other services are occurring which would negatively impact participants ability to secure skills and support needed to leave the program and function independently.