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The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

Writing a paper? Working on a literature review? Citing research in a funding proposal? Use the SSRC Citation Assistance Tool to compile citations.

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The SSRC Library includes resources which may be available only via journal subscription. The SSRC may be able to provide users without subscription access to a particular journal with a single use copy of the full text.  Please email the SSRC with your request.

The SSRC Library collection is constantly growing and new research is added regularly. We welcome our users to submit a library item to help us grow our collection in response to your needs.


  • Individual Author: Hauan, Susan; Douglas, Sarah
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2004

    Employment is a key component of the TANF program. With the introduction of work requirements under PRWORA, states now work more closely with recipients on encouraging participation in work activities to facilitate transitions out of welfare toward greater independence. Consequently, it is important to understand the potential limitations or liabilities that recipients may bring to the labor market, as well as the effect that these challenges may or may not have on employment.

    To address these issues, the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation (ASPE) funded a round of competitive state and local research grants to study the characteristics and circumstances of individuals and families receiving cash assistance from the TANF program. Each grantee gathered and analyzed data based on a common survey instrument that focused on three broad domains of potential assets and liabilities of work for welfare recipients:

    • human capital assets/deficits (education levels, work experience, job skills);
    • personal and family-related liabilities (...

    Employment is a key component of the TANF program. With the introduction of work requirements under PRWORA, states now work more closely with recipients on encouraging participation in work activities to facilitate transitions out of welfare toward greater independence. Consequently, it is important to understand the potential limitations or liabilities that recipients may bring to the labor market, as well as the effect that these challenges may or may not have on employment.

    To address these issues, the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation (ASPE) funded a round of competitive state and local research grants to study the characteristics and circumstances of individuals and families receiving cash assistance from the TANF program. Each grantee gathered and analyzed data based on a common survey instrument that focused on three broad domains of potential assets and liabilities of work for welfare recipients:

    • human capital assets/deficits (education levels, work experience, job skills);
    • personal and family-related liabilities (physical and mental health problems, chemical dependence, learning disabilities, criminal record, caring for a child with special health needs, and domestic violence); and
    • community-level challenges (transportation problems, childcare problems, unstable housing, and neighborhood problems).

    All studies were based on random samples of the population of single-parent TANF recipients in one given month. Survey data from all six studies — Colorado, the District of Columbia, Illinois, Maryland, Missouri, and South Carolina — were merged by ASPE staff, who conducted a pooled analysis of employment liabilities and work among welfare recipients.

  • Individual Author: Khadduri, Jill; Leopold, Josh; Sokol, Brian; Spellman, Brooke
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2010

    This study measures costs associated with first-time homeless families and individuals incurred by homeless and mainstream service delivery systems in six study communities. Unaccompanied individuals were studied in Des Moines, Iowa; Houston, Texas; and Jacksonville, Florida. Families were studied in Houston, Texas; Kalamazoo, Michigan; Upstate South Carolina; and Washington, DC.

    Past research has primarily documented costs associated with homelessness for individuals with chronic patterns of homelessness or severe mental illness. Newer work has been published on the costs incurred within the homeless system for families experiencing first-time homelessness. This study provides additional findings that help to improve our understanding of homelessness and its associated costs. It presents ideas about opportunities for cost savings, and it advances an approach for measuring costs that, coupled with other evaluation methods, can help communities understand the cost-effectiveness of different homelessness interventions. (author abstract) 

    This study measures costs associated with first-time homeless families and individuals incurred by homeless and mainstream service delivery systems in six study communities. Unaccompanied individuals were studied in Des Moines, Iowa; Houston, Texas; and Jacksonville, Florida. Families were studied in Houston, Texas; Kalamazoo, Michigan; Upstate South Carolina; and Washington, DC.

    Past research has primarily documented costs associated with homelessness for individuals with chronic patterns of homelessness or severe mental illness. Newer work has been published on the costs incurred within the homeless system for families experiencing first-time homelessness. This study provides additional findings that help to improve our understanding of homelessness and its associated costs. It presents ideas about opportunities for cost savings, and it advances an approach for measuring costs that, coupled with other evaluation methods, can help communities understand the cost-effectiveness of different homelessness interventions. (author abstract) 

  • Individual Author: Rowe, Gretchen; O'Brien, Carolyn T.; Hall, Sam; Pindus, Nancy M.; Eyster, Lauren; Koralek, Robin; Stanczyk, Alexandra
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2010

    The Urban Institute conducted a comprehensive study of state efforts to modernize the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP). Although modernization may be defined in many ways, this study adopted a broad definition of modernization described within four categories—policy changes, organizational changes, technological innovations, and partnering arrangements. The study included three data collection activities: initial site visits to four states; a national survey of all states, including a sample of local offices and partner organizations; and intensive case studies in 14 states. The states selected to participate in the case studies included Colorado, D.C., Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, Massachusetts, Mississippi, North Carolina, Pennsylvania, Texas, Utah, Washington, and Wisconsin. The main focus of this report is on findings from the intensive case studies conducted between February and June 2009. (author abstract)

    The Urban Institute conducted a comprehensive study of state efforts to modernize the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP). Although modernization may be defined in many ways, this study adopted a broad definition of modernization described within four categories—policy changes, organizational changes, technological innovations, and partnering arrangements. The study included three data collection activities: initial site visits to four states; a national survey of all states, including a sample of local offices and partner organizations; and intensive case studies in 14 states. The states selected to participate in the case studies included Colorado, D.C., Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, Massachusetts, Mississippi, North Carolina, Pennsylvania, Texas, Utah, Washington, and Wisconsin. The main focus of this report is on findings from the intensive case studies conducted between February and June 2009. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Wilkins, Carol; Burt, Martha
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2012

    In October 2010, the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation (ASPE), contracted with Abt Associates Inc. for a study to explore the roles that Medicaid, Community Health Centers, and other HHS programs might play in providing services linked to housing for people who experience chronic homelessness through Permanent Supportive Housing (PSH). PSH provides a permanent home for formerly homeless people with disabilities, along with the health care and other supportive services needed to help tenants adjust to living in housing and make the changes in their lives that will help them keep their housing. It differs from group homes, board and care facilities, and other treatment programs in that most tenants hold their own leases, and keeping their housing is usually not contingent on their participating in services or remaining at a certain level of illness. The research team produced four issue papers on promising practices linking health, mental health, and substance abuse services to housing assistance for the target population...

    In October 2010, the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation (ASPE), contracted with Abt Associates Inc. for a study to explore the roles that Medicaid, Community Health Centers, and other HHS programs might play in providing services linked to housing for people who experience chronic homelessness through Permanent Supportive Housing (PSH). PSH provides a permanent home for formerly homeless people with disabilities, along with the health care and other supportive services needed to help tenants adjust to living in housing and make the changes in their lives that will help them keep their housing. It differs from group homes, board and care facilities, and other treatment programs in that most tenants hold their own leases, and keeping their housing is usually not contingent on their participating in services or remaining at a certain level of illness. The research team produced four issue papers on promising practices linking health, mental health, and substance abuse services to housing assistance for the target population of chronically homeless people. This issue paper focuses on the roles that public housing agencies (PHAs) can play in expanding opportunities for chronically homeless people to move into housing, including the participation of PHAs in expanding the supply of PSH. (author abstract) 

  • Individual Author: Fein, David
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2016

    The analysis of data from 3,719 students in the Pathways for Advancing Careers and Education (PACE) evaluation highlights risk factors that disadvantaged students face in college success. The data indicates a strong relationship between college success and past educational experience; economic status; expected work hours; and expected part-time status. Findings also affirm the role of psycho-social factors - especially determination and confidence - in college success. Each program targeted and recruited different segments of the national population of disadvantaged adults. (author abstract)

    The analysis of data from 3,719 students in the Pathways for Advancing Careers and Education (PACE) evaluation highlights risk factors that disadvantaged students face in college success. The data indicates a strong relationship between college success and past educational experience; economic status; expected work hours; and expected part-time status. Findings also affirm the role of psycho-social factors - especially determination and confidence - in college success. Each program targeted and recruited different segments of the national population of disadvantaged adults. (author abstract)

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