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The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

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  • Individual Author: Pew Research Center
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2015

    Contemporary debates about parenthood often focus on parenting philosophies… While these debates may resonate with some parents, they often overlook the more basic, fundamental challenges many parents face – particularly those with lower incomes. A broad, demographically based look at the landscape of American families reveals stark parenting divides linked less to philosophies or values and more to economic circumstances and changing family structure.

    A new Pew Research Center survey conducted Sept. 15-Oct. 13, 2015, among 1,807 U.S. parents with children younger than 18 finds that for lower-income parents, financial instability can limit their children’s access to a safe environment and to the kinds of enrichment activities that affluent parents may take for granted. (author introduction)

    Contemporary debates about parenthood often focus on parenting philosophies… While these debates may resonate with some parents, they often overlook the more basic, fundamental challenges many parents face – particularly those with lower incomes. A broad, demographically based look at the landscape of American families reveals stark parenting divides linked less to philosophies or values and more to economic circumstances and changing family structure.

    A new Pew Research Center survey conducted Sept. 15-Oct. 13, 2015, among 1,807 U.S. parents with children younger than 18 finds that for lower-income parents, financial instability can limit their children’s access to a safe environment and to the kinds of enrichment activities that affluent parents may take for granted. (author introduction)

  • Individual Author: Lou, Cary; Isaacs, Julia B.; Hong, Ashley
    Reference Type: Conference Paper
    Year: 2018

    Public expenditures targeted to children can help ensure that children receive what they need to reach their full potential. Nutrition benefits, housing assistance, and public health insurance help guarantee children are well fed, housed, and healthy, while investments in early education and public schools promote learning. Investments in children can positively influence childhood well-being and long-term social and economic outcomes, and increased understanding of how childhood circumstances affect lifelong outcomes has led to more public support for investment in children. This analysis examines trends in public spending on children over time and compares projections of federal spending on children under current law with projections that assume the president’s proposed 2019 budget were enacted in full. Following the methods of the Urban Institute’s annual Kids Share report, we determine which programs aid children, their actual spending from 1960 to 2017, and the share of program spending going to children each year. We then apply these shares to two sets of federal spending...

    Public expenditures targeted to children can help ensure that children receive what they need to reach their full potential. Nutrition benefits, housing assistance, and public health insurance help guarantee children are well fed, housed, and healthy, while investments in early education and public schools promote learning. Investments in children can positively influence childhood well-being and long-term social and economic outcomes, and increased understanding of how childhood circumstances affect lifelong outcomes has led to more public support for investment in children. This analysis examines trends in public spending on children over time and compares projections of federal spending on children under current law with projections that assume the president’s proposed 2019 budget were enacted in full. Following the methods of the Urban Institute’s annual Kids Share report, we determine which programs aid children, their actual spending from 1960 to 2017, and the share of program spending going to children each year. We then apply these shares to two sets of federal spending projections prepared by the Congressional Budget Office (CBO):

    1. Baseline projections for fiscal year 2018-28 spending under current law.
    2. CBO’s “An Analysis of the President’s 2019 Budget” for estimates of fiscal year 2018-28 spending under the administration’s proposals.

    Many programs, such as the Child Care and Development Fund, Head Start, school improvement, SNAP, housing assistance, and Medicaid, would see sharp funding reductions, and the Low Income Home Energy Assistance Program, the Social Services Block Grant, and other programs would be eliminated entirely. (Expert from author introduction)

  • Individual Author: Dunham, Kate; Betesh, Hannah
    Reference Type: Conference Paper
    Year: 2015

    With a growing need for a more skilled workforce, providing effective and efficient employment and training services is an important national priority. We provide an overview of two of the largest initiatives seeking to provide these services in the United States: the Adult and Dislocated Worker programs. The programs provide similar services—including information on job search and high-demand occupations, assistance from employment counselors, and funding for training—and differ mainly in whether they focus on low-income individuals or workers who have become unemployed due to local economic conditions. We describe the programs as they operated under the Workforce Investment Act (WIA) of 1998 and how they evolved when the Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act (WIOA) superseded WIA in 2015. (Author abstract)

    With a growing need for a more skilled workforce, providing effective and efficient employment and training services is an important national priority. We provide an overview of two of the largest initiatives seeking to provide these services in the United States: the Adult and Dislocated Worker programs. The programs provide similar services—including information on job search and high-demand occupations, assistance from employment counselors, and funding for training—and differ mainly in whether they focus on low-income individuals or workers who have become unemployed due to local economic conditions. We describe the programs as they operated under the Workforce Investment Act (WIA) of 1998 and how they evolved when the Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act (WIOA) superseded WIA in 2015. (Author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Bernal, Raquel; Keane, Michael P.
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2011

    We evaluate the effect of child care versus maternal time inputs on child cognitive development using single mothers from the NLSY79. To deal with nonrandom selection of children into child care, we exploit the exogenous variation in welfare policy rules facing single mothers. In particular, the 1996 welfare reform and earlier state-level policy changes generated substantial increases in their work/child care use. We construct a comprehensive set of welfare policy variables and use them as instruments to estimate child cognitive ability production functions. In our baseline specification, we estimate that a year of child care reduces child test scores by 2.1%. (Author abstract)

    We evaluate the effect of child care versus maternal time inputs on child cognitive development using single mothers from the NLSY79. To deal with nonrandom selection of children into child care, we exploit the exogenous variation in welfare policy rules facing single mothers. In particular, the 1996 welfare reform and earlier state-level policy changes generated substantial increases in their work/child care use. We construct a comprehensive set of welfare policy variables and use them as instruments to estimate child cognitive ability production functions. In our baseline specification, we estimate that a year of child care reduces child test scores by 2.1%. (Author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Choi, Jeong-Kyun; Palmer, Robert J.; Pyun, Ho-Soon
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2014

    This study examined the relationships among non-resident fathers’ involvement, mothers’ parenting and parenting stress, and children’s behavioural and cognitive development in low-income single-mother families. Based on the theoretical concepts of father involvement in terms of accessibility, responsibility and interaction, this study operationalizes fathers’ involvement with three different measures: (i) fathers’ frequency of contact with their children; (ii) fathers’ amount of child support payment; and (iii) fathers’ quality of parenting. Analyses used the first three waves of longitudinal data from a subsample of single and non-cohabiting mothers with low income in the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study. Results suggest that nonresident fathers’ child support payment is indirectly associated with both children’s behaviour problems and cognitive development. Fathers’ parenting is also found to be indirectly associated with children’s behaviour problems. The findings further suggest that those estimated associations are transmitted through mothers’ parenting. The...

    This study examined the relationships among non-resident fathers’ involvement, mothers’ parenting and parenting stress, and children’s behavioural and cognitive development in low-income single-mother families. Based on the theoretical concepts of father involvement in terms of accessibility, responsibility and interaction, this study operationalizes fathers’ involvement with three different measures: (i) fathers’ frequency of contact with their children; (ii) fathers’ amount of child support payment; and (iii) fathers’ quality of parenting. Analyses used the first three waves of longitudinal data from a subsample of single and non-cohabiting mothers with low income in the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study. Results suggest that nonresident fathers’ child support payment is indirectly associated with both children’s behaviour problems and cognitive development. Fathers’ parenting is also found to be indirectly associated with children’s behaviour problems. The findings further suggest that those estimated associations are transmitted through mothers’ parenting. The expected associations between fathers’ contact and child outcomes are not found in this sample. The study also discusses the policy and practice implications of its findings. (Author abstract)

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