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The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

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The SSRC Library includes resources which may be available only via journal subscription. The SSRC may be able to provide users without subscription access to a particular journal with a single use copy of the full text.  Please email the SSRC with your request.

The SSRC Library collection is constantly growing and new research is added regularly. We welcome our users to submit a library item to help us grow our collection in response to your needs.


  • Individual Author: Ehrle Macomber, Jennifer; Cuccaro-Alamin, Stephanie; Duncan, Dean; Kuehn, Daniel; McDaniel, Marla; Vericker, Tracy; Pergamit, Mike; Needell, Barbara; Kum, Hye-Chung; Stewart, Joy; Lee, Chung-Kwon ; Barth, Richard P.
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2008

    This study examines employment outcomes for youth who age out of foster care through their middle twenties in three states: California, Minnesota, and North Carolina. The study linked child welfare, Unemployment Insurance (UI), and public assistance administrative data to assess outcomes. Results suggest that youth who age out of foster care continue to experience poor employment outcomes at age 24 and generally follow one of four employment trajectories as they transition to adulthood.(author abstract)

    This study examines employment outcomes for youth who age out of foster care through their middle twenties in three states: California, Minnesota, and North Carolina. The study linked child welfare, Unemployment Insurance (UI), and public assistance administrative data to assess outcomes. Results suggest that youth who age out of foster care continue to experience poor employment outcomes at age 24 and generally follow one of four employment trajectories as they transition to adulthood.(author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Venohr, Jane C.; Price, David A.; Van Wert, Laurie Davis; Anders, Christa M.
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2002

    Landmark welfare reform legislation in 1996 — the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunities Reconciliation Act (PRWORA) — changed the landscape of public assistance programs dramatically. First, PRWORA eliminated the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) program, which was the major source of public assistance to low-income, single-parent families, and replaced it with the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) program. PRWORA also changed many policies and procedures that govern implementation of the TANF program. Among those changes, it established a 60-month lifetime limit on the receipt of cash assistance. It also eliminated the requirement that states distribute the first $50 of current child support collections to families and instead gave states the option of whether to distribute and how much of child support collections to distribute to families eligible for TANF benefits. In response to the changes authorized by PRWORA, the Minnesota State Legislature passed a child support passthrough law, which was implemented in January 2001. The law included...

    Landmark welfare reform legislation in 1996 — the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunities Reconciliation Act (PRWORA) — changed the landscape of public assistance programs dramatically. First, PRWORA eliminated the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) program, which was the major source of public assistance to low-income, single-parent families, and replaced it with the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) program. PRWORA also changed many policies and procedures that govern implementation of the TANF program. Among those changes, it established a 60-month lifetime limit on the receipt of cash assistance. It also eliminated the requirement that states distribute the first $50 of current child support collections to families and instead gave states the option of whether to distribute and how much of child support collections to distribute to families eligible for TANF benefits. In response to the changes authorized by PRWORA, the Minnesota State Legislature passed a child support passthrough law, which was implemented in January 2001. The law included the following two key provisions of importance to TANF-eligible families: - All collections of current child support and spousal maintenance must be distributed, or passed through, to the custodial parent; and - All collections passed through to the custodial parent must reduce, dollar for dollar, the amount of cash assistance the family might otherwise have received under TANF. This is known as a zero disregard policy since passed through child support has no effect on the total income the family receives. In seeking to understand the impacts of the passthrough law, the Minnesota Department of Human Services, Child Support Enforcement Division, contracted with  Policy Studies Inc. to conduct an evaluation. (Excerpt from executive summary)

  • Individual Author: Hendra, Richard; Dillman, Keri-Nicole; Hamilton, Gayle; Lundquist, Erika; Martinson, Karin; Wavelet, Melissa; Hill, Aaron; Williams, Sonya
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2010

    Research completed since the 1980s has yielded substantial knowledge about how to help welfare recipients and other low-income individuals prepare for and find jobs. Many participants in these successful job preparation and placement programs, however, ended up in unstable, low-paying jobs, and little was known about how to effectively help them keep employment and advance in their jobs. The national Employment Retention and Advancement (ERA) project sought to fill this knowledge gap, by examining over a dozen innovative and diverse employment retention and advancement models developed by states and localities for different target groups, to determine whether effective strategies could be identified.

    Using a random assignment research design, the ERA project tested the effectiveness of programs that attempted to promote steady work and career advancement for current and former welfare recipients and other low-wage workers, most of whom were single mothers. The programs — generally supported by existing public funding, not special demonstration grants — reflected state and...

    Research completed since the 1980s has yielded substantial knowledge about how to help welfare recipients and other low-income individuals prepare for and find jobs. Many participants in these successful job preparation and placement programs, however, ended up in unstable, low-paying jobs, and little was known about how to effectively help them keep employment and advance in their jobs. The national Employment Retention and Advancement (ERA) project sought to fill this knowledge gap, by examining over a dozen innovative and diverse employment retention and advancement models developed by states and localities for different target groups, to determine whether effective strategies could be identified.

    Using a random assignment research design, the ERA project tested the effectiveness of programs that attempted to promote steady work and career advancement for current and former welfare recipients and other low-wage workers, most of whom were single mothers. The programs — generally supported by existing public funding, not special demonstration grants — reflected state and local choices regarding target populations, goals, ways of providing services, and staffing. The ERA project is being conducted by MDRC, under contract to the Administration for Children and Families (ACF) in the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, with additional funding from the U.S. Department of Labor. This report presents the final effectiveness findings, or impacts, for 12 of the 16 ERA programs, and it also summarizes how the 12 programs were implemented and individuals’ levels of participation in program services.

    Key Findings

    • Out of the twelve programs included in the report, three ERA programs produced positive economic impacts; nine did not. All three programs increased employment retention and advancement. Increases in employment retention and earnings were largest and most consistent over time in the Texas ERA program in Corpus Christi (one of three sites that operated this program); the Chicago ERA program; and the Riverside County, California, Post-Assistance Self-Sufficiency (PASS) ERA program. These programs increased annual earnings by between 7 percent and 15 percent relative to control group levels. Each of them served a different target group, which suggests that employment retention and advancement programs can work for a range of populations. However, three-fourths of the ERA programs included in this report did not produce gains in targeted outcomes beyond what control group members were able to attain on their own with the existing services and supports available in the ERA sites.
    • Increases in participation beyond control group levels were not consistent or large, which may have made it difficult for the programs to achieve impacts on employment retention and advancement. Engaging individuals in employment and retention services at levels above what they would have done in the absence of the programs was a consistent challenge. In addition, staff had to spend a lot of time and resources on placing unemployed individuals back into jobs, which made it difficult for them to focus on helping those who were already working to keep their jobs or move up.

    Before the ERA project began, there was not much evidence about the types of programs that could improve employment retention and advancement outcomes for current or former welfare recipients. The ERA evaluation provides valuable insights about the nature of retention and advancement problems and it underscores a number of key implementation challenges that a program would have to address. In addition, it reveals shortcomings in a range of common approaches now in use, while identifying three distinct approaches that seem promising and worthy of further exploration. (Author abstract) 

  • Individual Author: Coffey, Amelia; Hahn, Heather ; Park, Yuju
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2019

    This is a qualitative study of low-wage workers in two Minnesota communities who recently experienced either voluntary or involuntary job separation. The study confronts a false dichotomy that people are either working or on public assistance. The study analyzes workers’ experiences in low-wage, unstable jobs, reasons for separating from jobs, and the roles public assistance and other supports play in their lives. The study offers key insights from workers themselves on how jobs and assistance programs may be improved to help them achieve greater stability and economic security. (Author abstract)

     

    This is a qualitative study of low-wage workers in two Minnesota communities who recently experienced either voluntary or involuntary job separation. The study confronts a false dichotomy that people are either working or on public assistance. The study analyzes workers’ experiences in low-wage, unstable jobs, reasons for separating from jobs, and the roles public assistance and other supports play in their lives. The study offers key insights from workers themselves on how jobs and assistance programs may be improved to help them achieve greater stability and economic security. (Author abstract)

     

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