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The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

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The SSRC Library includes resources which may be available only via journal subscription. The SSRC may be able to provide users without subscription access to a particular journal with a single use copy of the full text.  Please email the SSRC with your request.

The SSRC Library collection is constantly growing and new research is added regularly. We welcome our users to submit a library item to help us grow our collection in response to your needs.


  • Individual Author: Dickert-Conlin, Stacy; Fitzpatrick, Katie; Tiehen, Laura
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2012

    In 2004 the U.S. Department of Agriculture began a large-scale advertising campaign to increase participation in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) by increasing awareness about the program. Despite this and other large-scale outreach efforts for federal programs targeted at eligible nonparticipants, the role of information in program participation is not well established. Paying careful attention to the potential endogeneity of advertising placement, we use variation over time and within states to estimate the effect of the advertising on caseloads, applications, approved applications, and denied applications. We find that radio advertisements are positively correlated with county-level caseloads in a sample that represents nearly every U.S. county. Six months after radio advertising in a county, the number of individuals receiving SNAP is 2 to 3 percent higher. With a smaller sample of counties on SNAP applications, approvals, and denials, we find limited evidence that SNAP is positively correlated with overall applications. However, approved applications are...

    In 2004 the U.S. Department of Agriculture began a large-scale advertising campaign to increase participation in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) by increasing awareness about the program. Despite this and other large-scale outreach efforts for federal programs targeted at eligible nonparticipants, the role of information in program participation is not well established. Paying careful attention to the potential endogeneity of advertising placement, we use variation over time and within states to estimate the effect of the advertising on caseloads, applications, approved applications, and denied applications. We find that radio advertisements are positively correlated with county-level caseloads in a sample that represents nearly every U.S. county. Six months after radio advertising in a county, the number of individuals receiving SNAP is 2 to 3 percent higher. With a smaller sample of counties on SNAP applications, approvals, and denials, we find limited evidence that SNAP is positively correlated with overall applications. However, approved applications are not higher following radio advertisement exposure and denied applications increase. One way to reconcile the fact that caseloads are higher but new enrollments are not is that increased information from the advertising campaign may reduce exits from the program. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Zedlewski, Sheila; Giannarelli, Linda; Wheaton, Laura; Morton, Joyce
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2010

    This study implements the modern poverty measure for Minnesota using the American Community Survey (ACS) and simulates the potential effects of alternative safety net policies on poverty. The analysis uses the TRIM3 microsimulation model to correct for survey underreporting and to add information required for this poverty measure, including near-cash benefits, taxes and nondiscretionary expenses. The alternative simulations apply new program rules and behavioral assumptions to recalculate family resources and poverty. The results show the importance of the modern poverty measure for analyzing state policies and also highlight the numerous decisions and imputations required to implement the new measure. (author abstract)

    This study implements the modern poverty measure for Minnesota using the American Community Survey (ACS) and simulates the potential effects of alternative safety net policies on poverty. The analysis uses the TRIM3 microsimulation model to correct for survey underreporting and to add information required for this poverty measure, including near-cash benefits, taxes and nondiscretionary expenses. The alternative simulations apply new program rules and behavioral assumptions to recalculate family resources and poverty. The results show the importance of the modern poverty measure for analyzing state policies and also highlight the numerous decisions and imputations required to implement the new measure. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Greenberger, Debbie; Anselmi, Robert
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2003

    The passage, in 1996, of the federal Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act gave states latitude to make substantial changes in their welfare policies. The time limits and stricter work requirements that states imposed have received the greatest public attention, but the vast majority of states have also used their new freedom to change their “earnings disregard” policies, which allow welfare recipients to earn more even as they remain on the rolls. These changes have been designed to provide additional financial incentives to encourage work and to increase income for families in which the parent does work. Recent research has found strong support for the earnings supplements: The additional income not only encourages work; it also helps young children perform better in school.

    States have increased welfare recipients’ financial incentives to work in a variety of ways. Some allow welfare recipients to keep their entire welfare check while they remain on welfare, although most provide less generous incentives for shorter periods of time. Some states...

    The passage, in 1996, of the federal Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act gave states latitude to make substantial changes in their welfare policies. The time limits and stricter work requirements that states imposed have received the greatest public attention, but the vast majority of states have also used their new freedom to change their “earnings disregard” policies, which allow welfare recipients to earn more even as they remain on the rolls. These changes have been designed to provide additional financial incentives to encourage work and to increase income for families in which the parent does work. Recent research has found strong support for the earnings supplements: The additional income not only encourages work; it also helps young children perform better in school.

    States have increased welfare recipients’ financial incentives to work in a variety of ways. Some allow welfare recipients to keep their entire welfare check while they remain on welfare, although most provide less generous incentives for shorter periods of time. Some states have introduced financial incentives outside the welfare system, through such policies as Earned Income Tax Credits, to avoid having recipients approach time limits faster by combining work and welfare. Some have introduced bonuses for welfare recipients who remain employed for a specified period of time. This guide summarizes the research evidence that supports the use of financial incentives, and it offers advice on the form financial incentives might take and how generous they might be made.

    The information in this guide may be more important now than ever. When Congress reauthorizes the nation’s welfare policy in 2003, it is likely to require even more recipients to work and require them to work more hours per week. The use of the policies described in this guide can help states meet the new goals as well as reduce poverty and benefit children. Although most states are suffering severe budget shortfalls as this guide is published, Making Work Pay discusses ways to make earning supplements more efficient and less costly. As the economy rebounds in the coming months and years — and state budgets recover accordingly — the guide will remain a useful resource for those who are thinking about how to use new funds to help families. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Dorn, Stan
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2014

    The most frequent reason that uninsured adults who visited a health insurance marketplace gave for not enrolling in marketplace coverage was unaffordability, even with subsidies. This report examines how several states appeared to overcome this obstacle. For example, Minnesota uses a Medicaid waiver to provide more affordable coverage outside the marketplace to consumers with incomes up to 200 percent of the federal poverty level, planning to transition to the Basic Health Program in 2015. Vermont supplements federal subsidies inside the marketplace to improve affordability for consumers with incomes up to 300 percent of poverty. (author abstract)

    The most frequent reason that uninsured adults who visited a health insurance marketplace gave for not enrolling in marketplace coverage was unaffordability, even with subsidies. This report examines how several states appeared to overcome this obstacle. For example, Minnesota uses a Medicaid waiver to provide more affordable coverage outside the marketplace to consumers with incomes up to 200 percent of the federal poverty level, planning to transition to the Basic Health Program in 2015. Vermont supplements federal subsidies inside the marketplace to improve affordability for consumers with incomes up to 300 percent of poverty. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Hahn, Heather; Kassabian, David; Breslav, Lina; Lamb, Yvette
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2015

    One-half of all families receiving cash assistance from the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) program live in states with “county-administered” TANF programs. But what does “county-administered” mean? To address this knowledge gap, this report closely examines the TANF programs in four states with state-supervised, county-administered systems (California, Colorado, Minnesota, and North Dakota) and provides detailed information on TANF administration in selected counties within these states.

    The report also identifies differences between county- and state-administered TANF programs and describes technical assistance needs of county-administered programs. The report draws on in-person interviews with state and county TANF administrators in each of the four states, as well as telephone interviews or survey responses from state TANF administrators in 29 states with state-administered TANF programs, and other data sources. (author abstract)

    One-half of all families receiving cash assistance from the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) program live in states with “county-administered” TANF programs. But what does “county-administered” mean? To address this knowledge gap, this report closely examines the TANF programs in four states with state-supervised, county-administered systems (California, Colorado, Minnesota, and North Dakota) and provides detailed information on TANF administration in selected counties within these states.

    The report also identifies differences between county- and state-administered TANF programs and describes technical assistance needs of county-administered programs. The report draws on in-person interviews with state and county TANF administrators in each of the four states, as well as telephone interviews or survey responses from state TANF administrators in 29 states with state-administered TANF programs, and other data sources. (author abstract)

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