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The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

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  • Individual Author: Cohen, Phillip N.
    Reference Type: Stakeholder Resource
    Year: 2006

    In the late 1990s economic expansion and the new welfare policy led to a dramatic growth in employment, and pushed down rates of welfare receipt among single mothers. Because employment increases reached so far down the economic ladder and official poverty declined, moreover, a conventional wisdom emerged that American had turned a corner with respect to poverty and its attendant social ills. Andrew Natsios spoke for many when, in the summer of 1999, he wrote, “Americans are wealthier, more law-abiding, and more willing to work in a booming economy, which gives credence to the old adage that a rising tide lifts all boats.”

    However, largely unnoticed at the intersection of these trends, and beginning in the early 1990s, was a decline in employment for a smaller and less visible population: single mothers with disabilities. That divergence turns out to be at the center of the growing disparity in wellbeing between single mothers with disabilities and the general population of single mothers that is the core issue for this report. As we will see, this disparity has important...

    In the late 1990s economic expansion and the new welfare policy led to a dramatic growth in employment, and pushed down rates of welfare receipt among single mothers. Because employment increases reached so far down the economic ladder and official poverty declined, moreover, a conventional wisdom emerged that American had turned a corner with respect to poverty and its attendant social ills. Andrew Natsios spoke for many when, in the summer of 1999, he wrote, “Americans are wealthier, more law-abiding, and more willing to work in a booming economy, which gives credence to the old adage that a rising tide lifts all boats.”

    However, largely unnoticed at the intersection of these trends, and beginning in the early 1990s, was a decline in employment for a smaller and less visible population: single mothers with disabilities. That divergence turns out to be at the center of the growing disparity in wellbeing between single mothers with disabilities and the general population of single mothers that is the core issue for this report. As we will see, this disparity has important implications for the relationship between work, family and the state in the United States. 

    The report begins with a brief theoretical framework and review of existing research, and then presents an analysis of trends in survival strategies and wellbeing for single mothers with and without disabilities. I conclude with a discussion of some policy approaches and recommendations for policy change. (author introduction)

  • Individual Author: Brand, Betsy; Christodoulidis, Caroline
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2008

    The purpose of this report is to provide policymakers, primarily at the federal and state levels, with information about youth with disabilities in foster care, so that policymakers can begin to understand the characteristics of this population; the challenges they face; how they fare with regard to safety, permanency, self-determination and self-sufficiency, enhanced quality of life, and community integration; and how the complex array of existing programs and services could be better designed to improve these outcomes.

    This report will shed light on the poor outcomes of youth with disabilities in foster care, especially with regard to education, employment, and other indicators of well-being. While the federal investment in the multiple systems with which these youth come in contact is significant, the disconnectedness and lack of coordination across programs and agencies call into question the effectiveness of government efforts. The report will therefore describe various policy recommendations for federal and state policymakers that focus on improving coordination,...

    The purpose of this report is to provide policymakers, primarily at the federal and state levels, with information about youth with disabilities in foster care, so that policymakers can begin to understand the characteristics of this population; the challenges they face; how they fare with regard to safety, permanency, self-determination and self-sufficiency, enhanced quality of life, and community integration; and how the complex array of existing programs and services could be better designed to improve these outcomes.

    This report will shed light on the poor outcomes of youth with disabilities in foster care, especially with regard to education, employment, and other indicators of well-being. While the federal investment in the multiple systems with which these youth come in contact is significant, the disconnectedness and lack of coordination across programs and agencies call into question the effectiveness of government efforts. The report will therefore describe various policy recommendations for federal and state policymakers that focus on improving coordination, holding systems accountable, developing leadership and the capacity of the system to work more effectively with these youth, improving transitions to adulthood and educational outcomes for them, and better data-sharing and information management. A brief summary of these recommendations will follow at the end of the report. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Brandon, Peter D.; Hogan, Dennis P.
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2004

    This research examines the relationship between disabilities in families and exits from welfare. Controlling for variations in characteristics known to be associated with welfare exits, this study investigates and documents that specific configurations of disabilities in families are also strongly associated with reduced rates of welfare exits. The impact of a child with a disability on welfare exits is similar to the mother's own disability, with an impact equivalent in magnitude to minority status. The presence of a child with a disability limits the chances that a mother with disability will leave welfare. Our findings add to the literature on welfare dependency and have implications for welfare reforms that emphasize work, self-sufficiency, and reducing poverty. (author abstract)

    This research examines the relationship between disabilities in families and exits from welfare. Controlling for variations in characteristics known to be associated with welfare exits, this study investigates and documents that specific configurations of disabilities in families are also strongly associated with reduced rates of welfare exits. The impact of a child with a disability on welfare exits is similar to the mother's own disability, with an impact equivalent in magnitude to minority status. The presence of a child with a disability limits the chances that a mother with disability will leave welfare. Our findings add to the literature on welfare dependency and have implications for welfare reforms that emphasize work, self-sufficiency, and reducing poverty. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Horvath-Rose, Ann E.; Stapleton, David C.; O’Day, Bonnie
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2004

    This paper uses the Current Population Survey (CPS) from 1981-2000 to compare long-term trends in socio-economic outcomes for youth (aged 15-21) and young adults (aged 22-29) with work limitations to those for youth and young adults without work limitations. We focus on the years 1988 and 1999: years that roughly correspond to the peaks of successive business cycles. We find that prevalence of work limitations declined for males but increased for females, mostly accounted for by growth for African American females. Despite a substantial reduction in the educational attainment gap between young adults with and without disabilities, gaps in employment, earnings, dependency on public programs and poverty widened substantially. These trends could be due to factors that determine whether individuals report themselves to be work-limited, factors that affect individual outcomes regardless of self-reported work limitation status, or both sets of factors. (author abstract)

    This paper uses the Current Population Survey (CPS) from 1981-2000 to compare long-term trends in socio-economic outcomes for youth (aged 15-21) and young adults (aged 22-29) with work limitations to those for youth and young adults without work limitations. We focus on the years 1988 and 1999: years that roughly correspond to the peaks of successive business cycles. We find that prevalence of work limitations declined for males but increased for females, mostly accounted for by growth for African American females. Despite a substantial reduction in the educational attainment gap between young adults with and without disabilities, gaps in employment, earnings, dependency on public programs and poverty widened substantially. These trends could be due to factors that determine whether individuals report themselves to be work-limited, factors that affect individual outcomes regardless of self-reported work limitation status, or both sets of factors. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Hogan, Dennis
    Reference Type: Book Chapter/Book
    Year: 2012

    The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) and other national policies are designed to ensure the greatest possible inclusion of people with disabilities in all aspects of American life. But as a matter of national policy we still place the lion’s share of responsibility for raising children with disabilities on their families. While this strategy largely works, sociologist Dennis Hogan maintains, the reality is that family financial security, the parents’ relationship, and the needs of other children in the home all can be stretched to the limit. In Family Consequences of Children’s Disabilities Hogan delves inside the experiences of these families and examines the financial and emotional costs of raising a child with a disability. The book examines the challenges families of children with disabilities encounter and how these challenges impact family life.

    The first comprehensive account of the families of children with disabilities, Family Consequences of Children’s Disabilities employs data culled from seven national surveys and interviews with twenty-four mothers of...

    The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) and other national policies are designed to ensure the greatest possible inclusion of people with disabilities in all aspects of American life. But as a matter of national policy we still place the lion’s share of responsibility for raising children with disabilities on their families. While this strategy largely works, sociologist Dennis Hogan maintains, the reality is that family financial security, the parents’ relationship, and the needs of other children in the home all can be stretched to the limit. In Family Consequences of Children’s Disabilities Hogan delves inside the experiences of these families and examines the financial and emotional costs of raising a child with a disability. The book examines the challenges families of children with disabilities encounter and how these challenges impact family life.

    The first comprehensive account of the families of children with disabilities, Family Consequences of Children’s Disabilities employs data culled from seven national surveys and interviews with twenty-four mothers of children with disabilities, asking them questions about their family life, social supports, and how other children in the home were faring. Not surprisingly, Hogan finds that couples who are together when their child is born have a higher likelihood of divorcing than other parents do. The potential for financial insecurity contributes to this anxiety, especially as many parents must strike a careful balance between employment and caregiving. Mothers are less likely to have paid employment, and the financial burden on single parents can be devastating. One-third of children with disabilities live in single-parent households, and nearly 30 percent of families raising a child with a disability live in poverty.

    Because of the high levels of stress these families incur, support networks are crucial. Grandparents are often a source of support. Siblings can also assist with personal care and, consequently, tend to develop more helpful attitudes, be more inclusive of others, and be more tolerant. But these siblings are at risk for their own health problems: they are three times more likely to experience poor health than children in homes where there is no child with a disability. Yet this book also shows that raising a child with a disability includes unexpected rewards—the families tend to be closer, and they engage in more shared activities such as games, television, and meals.

    Family Consequences of Children’s Disabilities offers access to a world many never see or prefer to ignore. The book provides vital information on effective treatment, rehabilitation, and enablement to medical professionals, educators, social workers, and lawmakers. This compelling book demonstrates that every mirror has two faces: raising a child with a disability can be difficult, but it can also offer expanded understanding. (author abstract)

    Table of Contents:

    • Chapter 1: Families’ Experiences with Children’s Disabilities 
    • Chapter 2: Methods to Study Family Consequences of Children’s Disabilities
    • Chapter 3: Supporting, Growing, and Dissolving the Family
    • Chapter 4: Family Life, Social Support, and Religious Activities
    • Chapter 5: Parents, Adolescent Children with Disabilities, and the Transition to Adulthood
    • Chapter 6: The Lives of Brothers and Sisters 
    • Chapter 7: Parents’ Struggles for Disability Services 
    • Chapter 8: Conclusions 

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