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The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

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  • Individual Author: Moreno, Manuel H.; Lichter, Michael; Burr, Beverly; Eisenberg, Nicole; González, Elizabeth; Horton, John; Joshi, Vandana; Shaw, Linda
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2002

    This report is part of a multi-year evaluation effort initiated by the Los Angeles County Department of Public Social Services (DPSS). The aim of the evaluation project, which is entitled, Evaluating CalWORKs in Los Angeles County, is to analyze the impact of welfare reform in Los Angeles County. The Project follows guidelines established in the CalWORKs Performance Monitoring and Evaluation Plan approved by the Los Angeles County Board of Supervisors in 1998. The Plan’s three major objectives are 1) measuring the success of welfare-to-work; 2) monitoring the effectiveness with which welfare reform has been implemented and administered; and 3) evaluating the impact of CalWORKs on families, children and communities in Los Angeles County. This report focuses on the third objective of the plan, evaluating the impact of CalWORKs on communities and families in Los Angeles County. 

    This report focuses on the impacts of welfare reform on families and communities during the first 21 months of its implementation in Los Angeles County. Because the implementation of welfare reform in...

    This report is part of a multi-year evaluation effort initiated by the Los Angeles County Department of Public Social Services (DPSS). The aim of the evaluation project, which is entitled, Evaluating CalWORKs in Los Angeles County, is to analyze the impact of welfare reform in Los Angeles County. The Project follows guidelines established in the CalWORKs Performance Monitoring and Evaluation Plan approved by the Los Angeles County Board of Supervisors in 1998. The Plan’s three major objectives are 1) measuring the success of welfare-to-work; 2) monitoring the effectiveness with which welfare reform has been implemented and administered; and 3) evaluating the impact of CalWORKs on families, children and communities in Los Angeles County. This report focuses on the third objective of the plan, evaluating the impact of CalWORKs on communities and families in Los Angeles County. 

    This report focuses on the impacts of welfare reform on families and communities during the first 21 months of its implementation in Los Angeles County. Because the implementation of welfare reform in Los Angeles County coincided with a period of sustained economic growth, it was difficult to analytically separate the effects of the reform program itself from the more general economic expansion. Whatever the underlying causes may be, however, welfare reform at least partially correlated with some positive outcomes for families and communities in Los Angeles County. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Halpern, Robert
    Reference Type: Book Chapter/Book
    Year: 1998

    How has America's social welfare network benefited families living in poverty? In what ways has it failed to provide for their needs? The system of social welfare in the United States has been in place for most of this century-and although it has had lasting impact on the lives of many people in need, it is far from perfect in its handling of the nation's poor. Fragile Families, Fragile Solutions presents a historical perspective on one of the central components of the U.S. social welfare network-family services-and provides a unique look at the advances this service network has achieved, problems it has confronted, and where it is likely to go in the future.

    Beginning with an exploration of the nineteenth-century roots of family services and the emergence of family casework at the beginning of this century, Halpern ranges through the 1920s and 1930- charting the influence of psychoanalytic theory in social service work and government responses to the Depression. He surveys the following two decades, when policymakers attempted to respond to changing inner-city populations...

    How has America's social welfare network benefited families living in poverty? In what ways has it failed to provide for their needs? The system of social welfare in the United States has been in place for most of this century-and although it has had lasting impact on the lives of many people in need, it is far from perfect in its handling of the nation's poor. Fragile Families, Fragile Solutions presents a historical perspective on one of the central components of the U.S. social welfare network-family services-and provides a unique look at the advances this service network has achieved, problems it has confronted, and where it is likely to go in the future.

    Beginning with an exploration of the nineteenth-century roots of family services and the emergence of family casework at the beginning of this century, Halpern ranges through the 1920s and 1930- charting the influence of psychoanalytic theory in social service work and government responses to the Depression. He surveys the following two decades, when policymakers attempted to respond to changing inner-city populations. An extended section focuses on the 1960- a critical reform period. Covering a wide spectrum of contemporary issues in policy and organization, as well as escalating crises in such areas as child welfare, Halpern brings readers up to date on this complex subject.

    Offering policy recommendations for the future, Halpern inspires social workers and policymakers alike with a symbolic goal of constructing a more positive vision of the potential of social services, and a pragmatic objective of designing an efficient, effective family services network to care for Americans in greatest need of support. (publisher abstract)

  • Individual Author: Burke, Vee; Gabe, Thomas; Falk, Gene
    Year: 2004

    This is an opportune time to examine the economic status of families with children.  The 109th Congress faces a decision on what terms to continue the major cash welfare program for children (Temporary Assistance for Needy Families —TANF) and entitlement child care funding. Congress may also consider making changes in social security, which now makes monthly payments to almost 4 million children whose breadwinner is dead, disabled, or aged.

    Since enactment of TANF in 1996, family cash welfare rolls have fallen by more than 50%, the employment rates of single mothers in the general population have risen dramatically, and the number of poor children has declined by more than 1 million.  However, the data show that “full-time working poverty” has increased overall among families with children.

    The social safety net for children consists of (1) earnings-based social insurance benefits and tax credits and (2) need-based transfers of cash and noncash benefits. In 2003, the House voted that the (overarching) purpose of TANF should be to “improve child well-being.”  This...

    This is an opportune time to examine the economic status of families with children.  The 109th Congress faces a decision on what terms to continue the major cash welfare program for children (Temporary Assistance for Needy Families —TANF) and entitlement child care funding. Congress may also consider making changes in social security, which now makes monthly payments to almost 4 million children whose breadwinner is dead, disabled, or aged.

    Since enactment of TANF in 1996, family cash welfare rolls have fallen by more than 50%, the employment rates of single mothers in the general population have risen dramatically, and the number of poor children has declined by more than 1 million.  However, the data show that “full-time working poverty” has increased overall among families with children.

    The social safety net for children consists of (1) earnings-based social insurance benefits and tax credits and (2) need-based transfers of cash and noncash benefits. In 2003, the House voted that the (overarching) purpose of TANF should be to “improve child well-being.”  This report profiles the economic well-being of children.  It presents data on official poverty among children and employment rates of mothers.  It discusses 2003 child poverty rates in detail: by family type, by work experience and education of the family head, and by immigration status of the family head.  Lastly, it provides a brief background discussion about government “safety net” policy. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Sweeney, Eileen; Schott, Liz; Lazere, Ed; Fremstad, Shawn; Goldberg, Heidi; Guyer, Jocelyn; Super, David; Johnson, Clifford
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2000

    This report describes an array of innovative strategies and practical ideas for helping low-income families with children. There is a window of opportunity for these new strategies as many states have tremendous financial resources available. The Temporary Assistance For Needy Families (TANF) program rules have been clarified, and families are running up to the time limits which welfare reform imposed in 1996. The proposals are organized into three categories. The first, providing work supports for low-income families, includes suggestions for: (1) worker stipends; (2) state earned income tax credits; (3) transportation assistance; (4) accessible and affordable child care; (5) job retention and advancement services; (6) short-term aid; (7) expanded health care coverage; and (8) incentives to pay child support. A second section discusses addressing barriers parents face to enable them to work, and the third section considers the needs of specific populations, such as the disabled, legal immigrants, victims of violence, and low-income noncustodial parents. The primary focus is on...

    This report describes an array of innovative strategies and practical ideas for helping low-income families with children. There is a window of opportunity for these new strategies as many states have tremendous financial resources available. The Temporary Assistance For Needy Families (TANF) program rules have been clarified, and families are running up to the time limits which welfare reform imposed in 1996. The proposals are organized into three categories. The first, providing work supports for low-income families, includes suggestions for: (1) worker stipends; (2) state earned income tax credits; (3) transportation assistance; (4) accessible and affordable child care; (5) job retention and advancement services; (6) short-term aid; (7) expanded health care coverage; and (8) incentives to pay child support. A second section discusses addressing barriers parents face to enable them to work, and the third section considers the needs of specific populations, such as the disabled, legal immigrants, victims of violence, and low-income noncustodial parents. The primary focus is on promising initiatives that can be financed through the use of federal or state welfare funds. Two innovative strategies that can draw on federal or federally matched funds available through the Medicaid or food stamp programs are also included. Appendixes A and B discuss the rules governing use of TANF, and Appendix C discusses food stamp eligibility and benefits. Two other appendixes contain resources for additional information and a list of proposals cited in the report. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Avellar, Sarah; Smock, Pamela J.
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2005

    Although the economic effects of divorce have been well studied, a similar exploration of cohabitation has not been conducted. For this analysis, the authors use a sample from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (N = 2,372) documenting changes in economic well-being at the end of a cohabiting relationship and comparing these results to a sample of divorced respondents. After dissolution, formerly cohabiting men's economic standing declines moderately, whereas formerly cohabiting women's declines much more precipitously, leaving a substantial proportion of women in poverty. This effect is particularly pronounced for African American and Hispanic women. Though the end of the relationship does reinforce gender stratification, it is also an "equalizer" between married and cohabiting women, leaving them in strikingly similar economic positions. (author abstract)

    Although the economic effects of divorce have been well studied, a similar exploration of cohabitation has not been conducted. For this analysis, the authors use a sample from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (N = 2,372) documenting changes in economic well-being at the end of a cohabiting relationship and comparing these results to a sample of divorced respondents. After dissolution, formerly cohabiting men's economic standing declines moderately, whereas formerly cohabiting women's declines much more precipitously, leaving a substantial proportion of women in poverty. This effect is particularly pronounced for African American and Hispanic women. Though the end of the relationship does reinforce gender stratification, it is also an "equalizer" between married and cohabiting women, leaving them in strikingly similar economic positions. (author abstract)

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