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The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

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  • Individual Author: U.S. Congress
    Reference Type: Statute
    Year: 1996

    This statute ended the Aid to Families with Dependent Children welfare entitlement program, replacing it with the Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF) block grant program, which provides cash assistance to needy families and requires families to make verifiable work efforts to leave welfare. It also allowed funds to be used to encourage the maintenance and formation of two-parent families. A second block grant under the statute provided funds to states to subsidize child care for low-income families.

    Public Law No. 104-193 (1996).

    This statute ended the Aid to Families with Dependent Children welfare entitlement program, replacing it with the Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF) block grant program, which provides cash assistance to needy families and requires families to make verifiable work efforts to leave welfare. It also allowed funds to be used to encourage the maintenance and formation of two-parent families. A second block grant under the statute provided funds to states to subsidize child care for low-income families.

    Public Law No. 104-193 (1996).

  • Individual Author: Pareja, Amber Stitziel; Lewis, Dan A.
    Reference Type: Conference Paper
    Year: 2004

    The 1996 welfare reform forced many poor parents into the labor market, with little understanding of how the parents' workforce participation would affect family life in general and the children in particular. In this paper, the authors use empirical data from a longitudinal study of a random sample of current and former welfare recipients and their children to examine the relationship between parental workforce participation, welfare receipt, and children's academic outcomes. Overall, findings show that children whose parents worked during only one or two of the three waves, as compared with those whose parents worked during all three waves, are significantly more likely to be achieving academically, receiving A's and B's, at Wave 3. The authors found a number of other factors to be significant predictors of children's academic achievement. They found that academic achievement decreases with age, and that girls are more likely to receive A's and B's than boys. They also found a strong relationship between academic achievement in Wave 1 and receiving A's and B's in Wave 3. They...

    The 1996 welfare reform forced many poor parents into the labor market, with little understanding of how the parents' workforce participation would affect family life in general and the children in particular. In this paper, the authors use empirical data from a longitudinal study of a random sample of current and former welfare recipients and their children to examine the relationship between parental workforce participation, welfare receipt, and children's academic outcomes. Overall, findings show that children whose parents worked during only one or two of the three waves, as compared with those whose parents worked during all three waves, are significantly more likely to be achieving academically, receiving A's and B's, at Wave 3. The authors found a number of other factors to be significant predictors of children's academic achievement. They found that academic achievement decreases with age, and that girls are more likely to receive A's and B's than boys. They also found a strong relationship between academic achievement in Wave 1 and receiving A's and B's in Wave 3. They argue that while some level of parental employment may be beneficial for children's academic achievement, long-term employment in low-wage work seems to negatively impact their achievement. (author abstract)

    If you require a one time use copy of this resource please email ssrc@opressrc.org.

  • Individual Author: Bartik, Timothy J.; Eberts, Randall W.
    Reference Type: Book Chapter/Book
    Year: 1999

    The purpose of this paper is to extend the current models to include additional measures of labor market conditions that may affect the variation in welfare caseloads. We believe the unemployment rate by itself may be a woefully incomplete measure of economic conditions affecting potential welfare recipients. The measures we develop are intended to reflect the availability of attractive jobs to welfare recipients. The paper is exploratory, in that the variables we develop have not previously been used to model welfare caseloads. Some of these variables have been used in the regional economics literature, but not as much in labor economics; others are newly developed for this paper. These variables are all meant to measure aspects of the structure of local labor demand that might affect welfare recipients, and all can reasonably be viewed as exogenous to the welfare caseload and to the labor supply behavior of potential welfare recipients. For example, we eschew variables that simply measure the economic status of potential welfare recipients, such as the unemployment rate of...

    The purpose of this paper is to extend the current models to include additional measures of labor market conditions that may affect the variation in welfare caseloads. We believe the unemployment rate by itself may be a woefully incomplete measure of economic conditions affecting potential welfare recipients. The measures we develop are intended to reflect the availability of attractive jobs to welfare recipients. The paper is exploratory, in that the variables we develop have not previously been used to model welfare caseloads. Some of these variables have been used in the regional economics literature, but not as much in labor economics; others are newly developed for this paper. These variables are all meant to measure aspects of the structure of local labor demand that might affect welfare recipients, and all can reasonably be viewed as exogenous to the welfare caseload and to the labor supply behavior of potential welfare recipients. For example, we eschew variables that simply measure the economic status of potential welfare recipients, such as the unemployment rate of female household heads with lower levels of education. The economic status of potential welfare recipients is clearly endogenous (in that it will be determined by unobserved welfare policies that affect welfare caseloads), and the economic status of potential welfare recipients is clearly affected by labor supply behavior as much as labor demand. Our focus is on labor demand factors affecting welfare caseloads. (author introduction)

  • Individual Author: Chase-Lansdale, P. Lindsay; Moffitt, Robert A.; Lohman, Brenda J.; Cherlin, Andrew J.; Levine Coley, Rebekah; Pittman, Laura D.; Roff, Jennifer; Votruba-Drzal, Elizabeth
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2003

    Results from a longitudinal study of 2,402 low-income families during the recent unprecedented era of welfare reform suggest that mothers' transitions off welfare and into employment are not associated with negative outcomes for preschoolers (ages 2 to 4 years) or young adolescents (ages 10 to 14 years). Indeed, no significant associations with mothers' welfare and employment transitions were found for preschoolers, and the dominant pattern was also of few statistically significant associations for adolescents. The associations that did occur provided slight evidence that mothers' entry into the labor force was related to improvements in adolescents' mental health, whereas exits from employment were linked with teenagers' increased behavior problems. (Author abstract)

    Results from a longitudinal study of 2,402 low-income families during the recent unprecedented era of welfare reform suggest that mothers' transitions off welfare and into employment are not associated with negative outcomes for preschoolers (ages 2 to 4 years) or young adolescents (ages 10 to 14 years). Indeed, no significant associations with mothers' welfare and employment transitions were found for preschoolers, and the dominant pattern was also of few statistically significant associations for adolescents. The associations that did occur provided slight evidence that mothers' entry into the labor force was related to improvements in adolescents' mental health, whereas exits from employment were linked with teenagers' increased behavior problems. (Author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Karpman, Michael; Hahn, Heather; Gangopadhyaya, Anuj
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2019

    Since 2017, policymakers have sought to establish or expand work requirements for participants in federal safety net programs. These policies generally require non-disabled adults to work or participate in work-related activities for a minimum number of hours per week or month to continue receiving benefits. Program participants must navigate these requirements within a low-wage job market in which just-in-time scheduling practices have resulted in unstable and unpredictable work hours for many employees.

    Using data from the December 2018 Well-Being and Basic Needs Survey, we examined the prevalence of precarious work schedules among working adults whose families participate in federal safety net programs in the past year, focusing on four key areas: nonstandard work shift schedules, fluctuation in weekly hours worked, advance notice of work schedules, and control over work schedules. We find that safety net program participants’ work schedules are structured in ways that would place these workers at risk of transitioning in and out of compliance with...

    Since 2017, policymakers have sought to establish or expand work requirements for participants in federal safety net programs. These policies generally require non-disabled adults to work or participate in work-related activities for a minimum number of hours per week or month to continue receiving benefits. Program participants must navigate these requirements within a low-wage job market in which just-in-time scheduling practices have resulted in unstable and unpredictable work hours for many employees.

    Using data from the December 2018 Well-Being and Basic Needs Survey, we examined the prevalence of precarious work schedules among working adults whose families participate in federal safety net programs in the past year, focusing on four key areas: nonstandard work shift schedules, fluctuation in weekly hours worked, advance notice of work schedules, and control over work schedules. We find that safety net program participants’ work schedules are structured in ways that would place these workers at risk of transitioning in and out of compliance with work requirements week to week for reasons beyond their control. (Author abstract)

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