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The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

Writing a paper? Working on a literature review? Citing research in a funding proposal? Use the SSRC Citation Assistance Tool to compile citations.

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The SSRC Library includes resources which may be available only via journal subscription. The SSRC may be able to provide users without subscription access to a particular journal with a single use copy of the full text.  Please email the SSRC with your request.

The SSRC Library collection is constantly growing and new research is added regularly. We welcome our users to submit a library item to help us grow our collection in response to your needs.


  • Individual Author: Enchautegui, Maria
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2013

    In 2010–11, 28 percent of lower-income workers, and 20 percent of all workers, worked most of their hours between 6 p.m. and 6 a.m. or on weekends. The occupations and industries with the most nonstandard-schedule workers are among the lowest paid and among those with the most expected employment growth by 2020. These workers have to arrange child care when most centers are closed, commute when public transportation is less available, and carve out time with family, while often working irregular schedules with no paid time off. Work support strategies, workplace development, and schools can help work-family balance. (author abstract)

    In 2010–11, 28 percent of lower-income workers, and 20 percent of all workers, worked most of their hours between 6 p.m. and 6 a.m. or on weekends. The occupations and industries with the most nonstandard-schedule workers are among the lowest paid and among those with the most expected employment growth by 2020. These workers have to arrange child care when most centers are closed, commute when public transportation is less available, and carve out time with family, while often working irregular schedules with no paid time off. Work support strategies, workplace development, and schools can help work-family balance. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Gould-Werth, Alix; Shaefer, H. Luke
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2013

    Unemployment Insurance (UI) is the major social insurance program that protects against lost earnings resulting from involuntary unemployment. Existing literature finds that low-earning unemployed workers experience difficulty accessing UI benefits. The most prominent policy reform designed to increase rates of monetary eligibility, and thus UI receipt, among these unemployed workers is the Alternative Base Period (ABP). In 2009, the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act sought to increase use of the ABP, making ABP adoption a necessary precondition for states to receive their share of the $7 billion targeted at UI programs. By January 2013, 40 states and the District of Columbia had adopted the ABP despite the absence of an evaluation of ABP efficacy using nationally representative data. This study analyzes Current Population Survey data from 1987 to 2011 to assess the efficacy of the ABP in increasing UI receipt among low-educated unemployed workers. We used a natural-experiment design to capture the combined behavioral and mechanical effects of the policy change. We found no...

    Unemployment Insurance (UI) is the major social insurance program that protects against lost earnings resulting from involuntary unemployment. Existing literature finds that low-earning unemployed workers experience difficulty accessing UI benefits. The most prominent policy reform designed to increase rates of monetary eligibility, and thus UI receipt, among these unemployed workers is the Alternative Base Period (ABP). In 2009, the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act sought to increase use of the ABP, making ABP adoption a necessary precondition for states to receive their share of the $7 billion targeted at UI programs. By January 2013, 40 states and the District of Columbia had adopted the ABP despite the absence of an evaluation of ABP efficacy using nationally representative data. This study analyzes Current Population Survey data from 1987 to 2011 to assess the efficacy of the ABP in increasing UI receipt among low-educated unemployed workers. We used a natural-experiment design to capture the combined behavioral and mechanical effects of the policy change. We found no association between state-level ABP adoption and individual UI receipt for all unemployed workers. However, among part-time unemployed workers with less than a high school degree, adoption of the ABP was associated with a 2.8 percentage point increase in the probability of UI receipt. (author abstract)

    This article is based on a working paper published by the National Poverty Center at the University of Michigan.

  • Individual Author: Hoover, Gary A.; Yaya, Mehmet E.
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2011

    In this study, the authors investigate the income inequality responses of Blacks, Whites, and Hispanics in the United States to the income maintenance program Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) using cross sections of state-level data. The results show that this program indeed reduces income inequality but the impacts are not uniform across racial/ethnic groups. Specifically, the authors find that Blacks have results that differ from those of the other two groups or those of the United States as a whole. These results are robust when using either the Gini or Theil measure of inequality. (Author abstract)

    In this study, the authors investigate the income inequality responses of Blacks, Whites, and Hispanics in the United States to the income maintenance program Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) using cross sections of state-level data. The results show that this program indeed reduces income inequality but the impacts are not uniform across racial/ethnic groups. Specifically, the authors find that Blacks have results that differ from those of the other two groups or those of the United States as a whole. These results are robust when using either the Gini or Theil measure of inequality. (Author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Werner, Alan; Rappaport, Catherine D.; Stuart, Jennifer B.; Lewis, Jennifer
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2013

    In recent years workforce development and welfare reform policy and programs, as well as the nation’s technical and community colleges, have been faced increasingly with the challenge of preparing low-income individuals with limited vocational skills and work experience for better-paying jobs requiring post-secondary training. Career pathways (CP) programs have developed over the past decade as a comprehensive framework of adult developmental and vocational education and supportive services designed to address this challenge. They represent a potential structural change in the system of vocational training for their target populations. Most of the Health Profession Opportunity Grants (HPOG) programs have implemented workforce development programs that include many, if not all, of the essential components of the CP framework. This report reviews selected research studies on CP program design, implementation, outcomes and impacts. It is intended to inform the design of an implementation, systems and outcomes evaluation of HPOG. This evaluation (referred to as the HPOG National...

    In recent years workforce development and welfare reform policy and programs, as well as the nation’s technical and community colleges, have been faced increasingly with the challenge of preparing low-income individuals with limited vocational skills and work experience for better-paying jobs requiring post-secondary training. Career pathways (CP) programs have developed over the past decade as a comprehensive framework of adult developmental and vocational education and supportive services designed to address this challenge. They represent a potential structural change in the system of vocational training for their target populations. Most of the Health Profession Opportunity Grants (HPOG) programs have implemented workforce development programs that include many, if not all, of the essential components of the CP framework. This report reviews selected research studies on CP program design, implementation, outcomes and impacts. It is intended to inform the design of an implementation, systems and outcomes evaluation of HPOG. This evaluation (referred to as the HPOG National Implementation Evaluation) is being designed to address the following major research questions:

    • • How are health professions training programs being implemented across the grantee sites?
    • • What changes to the service delivery system are associated with program implementation?
    • • What individual-level outputs and outcomes occur (for example: recruitment, enrollment, retention, completion, certification, job entry, employment retention and advancement, and earnings)?
    • • What can be learned about how best to implement these programs for this population (what implementation and/or systems components are related to program outputs and outcomes)?
    • • What key components appear necessary or contribute to the success of these programs?

    This literature review essay includes a section on CP program design and implementation, a section on outcome and impact studies and a section summarizing the implications of the research literature for the HPOG National Implementation Evaluation design. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Braun, R. Anton ; Kopecky, Karen A.; Koreshkova, Tatyana
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2013

    Poor heath, large acute and long-term care medical expenses, and spousal death are significant drivers of impoverishment among retirees. We document these facts and build a rich, overlapping generations model that reproduces them. We use the model to assess the incentive and welfare effects of Social Security and means-tested social insurance programs such as Medicaid and food stamp programs, for the aged. We find that U.S. means-tested social insurance programs for retirees provide significant welfare benefits for all newborn. Moreover, when means-tested social insurance benefits are of the scale in the United States, all individuals would prefer to be born into an economy with no Social Security. Finally, we find that the benefits of increasing means-tested social insurance are small or negative, if we hold fixed Social Security contributions and benefits at their current levels. (Author abstract)

    Poor heath, large acute and long-term care medical expenses, and spousal death are significant drivers of impoverishment among retirees. We document these facts and build a rich, overlapping generations model that reproduces them. We use the model to assess the incentive and welfare effects of Social Security and means-tested social insurance programs such as Medicaid and food stamp programs, for the aged. We find that U.S. means-tested social insurance programs for retirees provide significant welfare benefits for all newborn. Moreover, when means-tested social insurance benefits are of the scale in the United States, all individuals would prefer to be born into an economy with no Social Security. Finally, we find that the benefits of increasing means-tested social insurance are small or negative, if we hold fixed Social Security contributions and benefits at their current levels. (Author abstract)

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