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The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

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The SSRC Library collection is constantly growing and new research is added regularly. We welcome our users to submit a library item to help us grow our collection in response to your needs.


  • Individual Author: Wauchope, Barbara; Jaffee, Elenor; Lyons, Kristen; Lutz, Aimee Delaney
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2013

    The information in this New Hampshire Kids Count Cities Data Book is primarily a story about children living in these large communities. However; to ensure we describe children from across the state, we include several smaller, more rural towns as well.

    The NH Kids Count Cities Data Book expands on the 2010/2011 New Hampshire Kids Count Data Book which reported state and county level data. This book focuses on fourteen cities and towns in our state reporting on 24 indicators of child well-being. Together these two New Hampshire publications provide a nuanced perspective of Granite State children and young adults, portraying areas of accomplishment as well as areas of need among the children and families of our state. (Author abstract)

    The information in this New Hampshire Kids Count Cities Data Book is primarily a story about children living in these large communities. However; to ensure we describe children from across the state, we include several smaller, more rural towns as well.

    The NH Kids Count Cities Data Book expands on the 2010/2011 New Hampshire Kids Count Data Book which reported state and county level data. This book focuses on fourteen cities and towns in our state reporting on 24 indicators of child well-being. Together these two New Hampshire publications provide a nuanced perspective of Granite State children and young adults, portraying areas of accomplishment as well as areas of need among the children and families of our state. (Author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Kenefick, Elizabeth; Lower-Basch, Elizabeth
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2012

    In recent years many states have considered legislation to require applicants for cash assistance under TANF to pass a chemical drug test as a condition of eligibility. As discussed in a companion brief, CLASP strongly opposes suspicionless mandatory testing as a costly, stigmatizing, and ineffective means of identifying substance abuse and believes that these bills are often motivated by stereotype and inaccurate assumptions about poor families who receive welfare. However, we recognize that substance abuse and addiction can be barriers to employment and self-sufficiency and should be appropriately addressed within the TANF program when they affect recipients.

    Contrary to the perception created by the plethora of proposed legislation, states already have many options for dealing with substance abuse within TANF and are addressing with issue with approaches that are more targeted and cost-effective than suspicionless testing. These include screening for alcohol and drug abuse, incorporation of treatment into work activities, using TANF funds to pay for non-medical...

    In recent years many states have considered legislation to require applicants for cash assistance under TANF to pass a chemical drug test as a condition of eligibility. As discussed in a companion brief, CLASP strongly opposes suspicionless mandatory testing as a costly, stigmatizing, and ineffective means of identifying substance abuse and believes that these bills are often motivated by stereotype and inaccurate assumptions about poor families who receive welfare. However, we recognize that substance abuse and addiction can be barriers to employment and self-sufficiency and should be appropriately addressed within the TANF program when they affect recipients.

    Contrary to the perception created by the plethora of proposed legislation, states already have many options for dealing with substance abuse within TANF and are addressing with issue with approaches that are more targeted and cost-effective than suspicionless testing. These include screening for alcohol and drug abuse, incorporation of treatment into work activities, using TANF funds to pay for non-medical treatment and ancillary supports, and, where warranted, using testing to monitor compliance of specific populations, such as individuals previously convicted of drug-related crimes. Unfortunately there is a lack of systemic current information about the steps states are taking to tackle substance abuse problems. Prior research on the subject is largely made up of two separate surveys, from 1999 and 2002, as well as case studies that highlight innovative programs from the same period.

    This brief aims to provide updated information on the range of state policies and highlights some of the promising approaches that states are using to address substance abuse by TANF recipients. It is based primarily on a recent CLASP-commissioned survey conducted by students at George Washington's School of Public Policy, as well as interviews they conducted with state TANF program administrators. Due to time constraints and the political controversies around drug testing, not all states were willing to respond to the survey. While the findings are not generalizable to all states, they provide a useful overview of the range of approaches that states can take. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Podus, Deborah; Lu, Ake Tzu-Hui; Anglin, M. Douglas
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2005

    This report examines the prevalence of drug use among California Work Opportunity and Responsibility to Kids (CalWORKs) participants and the interplay between receipt of CalWORKs benefits and access to and utilization of medical, mental health, and substance abuse treatment services among CalWORKs participants with substance abuse problems.

    Findings are based on a study of CalWORKs participants in Los Angeles County. The study had three components: (a) a baseline/prevalence interview of a sample of 511 English- and Spanish-speaking CalWORKs participants (287 applicants who were probably eligible for CalWORKs [referred to as “probably eligible applicants” hereafter] and 224 recipients undergoing an annual re-determination review); (b) a 9-month follow-up interview with 155 respondents who were applicants at the time of the baseline interview; and (c) an analysis of Los Angeles County Department of Public Social Services (DPSS) administrative data on receipt of CalWORKs cash aid and specialized supportive services for 347 respondents who consented to the release of their...

    This report examines the prevalence of drug use among California Work Opportunity and Responsibility to Kids (CalWORKs) participants and the interplay between receipt of CalWORKs benefits and access to and utilization of medical, mental health, and substance abuse treatment services among CalWORKs participants with substance abuse problems.

    Findings are based on a study of CalWORKs participants in Los Angeles County. The study had three components: (a) a baseline/prevalence interview of a sample of 511 English- and Spanish-speaking CalWORKs participants (287 applicants who were probably eligible for CalWORKs [referred to as “probably eligible applicants” hereafter] and 224 recipients undergoing an annual re-determination review); (b) a 9-month follow-up interview with 155 respondents who were applicants at the time of the baseline interview; and (c) an analysis of Los Angeles County Department of Public Social Services (DPSS) administrative data on receipt of CalWORKs cash aid and specialized supportive services for 347 respondents who consented to the release of their records data. In addition to the above data, approximately 78% of respondents provided a voluntary urine sample for drug testing at the time of the baseline interview. Respondents were drawn from all 24 CalWORKs district offices and were ethnically representative of the English- and Spanish-speaking CalWORKs population in the county. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Jayakody, Rukmalie; Danziger, Sheldon; Pollack, Harold
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2000

    Welfare reform transformed the traditional entitlement to cash welfare under Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) into a transitional program known as Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF). Because of the work requirements and the time-limited nature of assistance, policy makers are increasingly confronted with what to do when welfare recipients do not effectively make the transition from welfare-to-work, and are increasingly using the language of public health to determine who is 'employable' and who is not. Thus, renewed attention is being focused on the individual characteristics of participants themselves, particularly specific diagnoses that might reduce employability. This paper focuses on substance abuse and mental health problems among single mothers and examines their relationship to welfare receipt. We analyze data from the 1994 and 1995 National Household Survey of Drug Abuse (NHSDA), and find that 19 percent of welfare recipients meet the criteria for a DSM-III-R psychiatric diagnosis. About the same percentage have used illicit drugs...

    Welfare reform transformed the traditional entitlement to cash welfare under Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) into a transitional program known as Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF). Because of the work requirements and the time-limited nature of assistance, policy makers are increasingly confronted with what to do when welfare recipients do not effectively make the transition from welfare-to-work, and are increasingly using the language of public health to determine who is 'employable' and who is not. Thus, renewed attention is being focused on the individual characteristics of participants themselves, particularly specific diagnoses that might reduce employability. This paper focuses on substance abuse and mental health problems among single mothers and examines their relationship to welfare receipt. We analyze data from the 1994 and 1995 National Household Survey of Drug Abuse (NHSDA), and find that 19 percent of welfare recipients meet the criteria for a DSM-III-R psychiatric diagnosis. About the same percentage have used illicit drugs during the previous year. Logistic regression results indicate that mental and behavioral health problems are significant barriers to self-sufficiency that are increasingly important in this era of time-limited benefits. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Morgenstern, Jon; Blanchard, Kimberly A.
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2006

    The 1996 welfare reform law replaced the existing entitlement to cash welfare with a transitional program of temporary aid that has employment as its primary goal. Among the key provisions of the welfare reform legislation were mandatory time limits on benefits and work requirements for all recipients, including those with substance use disorders. Changes brought about by the welfare reform law have important implications for the organization of substance abuse services and the well-being of disadvantaged children whose parents have substance use disorders. The overall effect of welfare reform could be positive. It gives States wide latitude to design programs to help low-income people attain self-sufficiency and has increased interest in developing innovative programming for hard-to-employ welfare populations, including those with substance use disorders (Berlin 2001). This interest could lead to increased funding for treatment, new services such as screening, better integration of needed ancillary services (i.e., medical care, child care, help with housing and transportation),...

    The 1996 welfare reform law replaced the existing entitlement to cash welfare with a transitional program of temporary aid that has employment as its primary goal. Among the key provisions of the welfare reform legislation were mandatory time limits on benefits and work requirements for all recipients, including those with substance use disorders. Changes brought about by the welfare reform law have important implications for the organization of substance abuse services and the well-being of disadvantaged children whose parents have substance use disorders. The overall effect of welfare reform could be positive. It gives States wide latitude to design programs to help low-income people attain self-sufficiency and has increased interest in developing innovative programming for hard-to-employ welfare populations, including those with substance use disorders (Berlin 2001). This interest could lead to increased funding for treatment, new services such as screening, better integration of needed ancillary services (i.e., medical care, child care, help with housing and transportation), and more accountability for outcomes on the part of programs and government systems. Conversely, welfare reform may have a profoundly negative impact on low-income people with substance use disorders and the programs that serve them. The policy of sanctioning welfare recipients for failure to comply with new welfare regulations and a punitive atmosphere at welfare offices may drastically reduce the number of low-income Americans with substance use disorders who receive public aid, and treatment programs dependent on public funds may face a resulting loss of revenue. (author abstract)

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