Skip to main content
Back to Top

SSRC Library

The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

Writing a paper? Working on a literature review? Citing research in a funding proposal? Use the SSRC Citation Assistance Tool to compile citations.

  • Conduct a search and filter parameters as desired.
  • "Check" the box next to the resources for which you would like a citation.
  • Select "Download Selected Citation" at the top of the Library Search Page.
  • Select your export style:
    • Text File.
    • RIS Format.
    • APA format.
  • Select submit and download your citations.

The SSRC Library includes resources which may be available only via journal subscription. The SSRC may be able to provide users without subscription access to a particular journal with a single use copy of the full text.  Please email the SSRC with your request.

The SSRC Library collection is constantly growing and new research is added regularly. We welcome our users to submit a library item to help us grow our collection in response to your needs.


  • Individual Author: Graefe, Deborah Roempke; Lichter, Daniel T.
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2008

    The promotion of marriage and two-parent families became an explicit public policy goal with the passage of the 1996 welfare reform bill.   Marriage has the putative effect of reducing welfare dependency among single mothers, but only if they marry men with earnings sufficient to lift them and their children out of poverty.  Newly released data from the 2002 cycle of the National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG), along with data from the 1995 cycle, allow us to compare pre- and post-PRWORA differences in (1) cumulative marriage rates among unwed mothers; and (2) patterns of marital choice, i.e., differences in characteristics of the men these mothers marry, such as their education and employment status.  Overall, our results show that unwed childbearing is associated with lower marriage rates and marital quality.  Although difference-in-difference models show that welfare reform was not strongly associated with changes in marriage among nonmarital birth mothers, marriage rates did not decrease significantly among the most disadvantaged mothers during the post-1996 period.  ...

    The promotion of marriage and two-parent families became an explicit public policy goal with the passage of the 1996 welfare reform bill.   Marriage has the putative effect of reducing welfare dependency among single mothers, but only if they marry men with earnings sufficient to lift them and their children out of poverty.  Newly released data from the 2002 cycle of the National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG), along with data from the 1995 cycle, allow us to compare pre- and post-PRWORA differences in (1) cumulative marriage rates among unwed mothers; and (2) patterns of marital choice, i.e., differences in characteristics of the men these mothers marry, such as their education and employment status.  Overall, our results show that unwed childbearing is associated with lower marriage rates and marital quality.  Although difference-in-difference models show that welfare reform was not strongly associated with changes in marriage among nonmarital birth mothers, marriage rates did not decrease significantly among the most disadvantaged mothers during the post-1996 period.   Compared with other women, nonmarital birth mothers also were less likely to marry "economically attractive" men in the post-welfare reform period.   The success of marriage promotion initiatives may depend heavily on whether women themselves are “marriageable” and whether potential spouses have the ability to support a stable family life. (author abstract)

    An unpublished working paper for this article is available from the National Poverty Center at the University of Michigan.

  • Individual Author: Gottman, John M.; Cleary-Bradley, Renay P.
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2012

    This work evaluated a psycho-educational intervention designed to reduce intimate partner violence (IPV) in low-income situationally violent couples. The primary objective was to evaluate the mechanism through which violence was reduced. It was hypothesized that IPV would be reduced via use of therapeutic skills taught during the intervention (i.e., friendship, sex/romance/passion, shared meaning, and conflict management skills). One-hundred-fifteen couples were randomly assigned to a treatment or no-treatment control group. Couples self-reported attitudes reflecting healthy relationship skills and IPV at multiple time points (baseline, post-intervention, and long-term post-intervention). Results support the notion that violence was reduced via an increase in intervention-based skills. Findings suggest that IPV can be safely reduced in low-income situationally violent couples via conjoint treatment focused on building healthy relationship skills. (author abstract)

    This work evaluated a psycho-educational intervention designed to reduce intimate partner violence (IPV) in low-income situationally violent couples. The primary objective was to evaluate the mechanism through which violence was reduced. It was hypothesized that IPV would be reduced via use of therapeutic skills taught during the intervention (i.e., friendship, sex/romance/passion, shared meaning, and conflict management skills). One-hundred-fifteen couples were randomly assigned to a treatment or no-treatment control group. Couples self-reported attitudes reflecting healthy relationship skills and IPV at multiple time points (baseline, post-intervention, and long-term post-intervention). Results support the notion that violence was reduced via an increase in intervention-based skills. Findings suggest that IPV can be safely reduced in low-income situationally violent couples via conjoint treatment focused on building healthy relationship skills. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Gennetian, Lisa A. ; Knox, Virginia
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2003

    Background
    How have recent changes in the welfare system affected marriage and cohabitation? While there is some debate among policymakers and the public about the role of government in marriage and family formation, there is a clear value in understanding how new policies affect children’s likelihood of living in healthy two-parent families. Welfare policy is an important starting point; a stated goal of the 1996 welfare reforms was to encourage the formation of two-parent families. However, recent random assignment studies of welfare and work programs have found only scattered and inconsistent effects on marriage, leaving policymakers with little guidance about whether these new policies are discouraging or promoting marriage. Understanding the role played by current policies is an important first step in considering the role interventions specifically designed to promote marriage might play in the future.

    This paper uses meta-analytic techniques to provide a systematic appraisal of how welfare reform policies in six...

    Background
    How have recent changes in the welfare system affected marriage and cohabitation? While there is some debate among policymakers and the public about the role of government in marriage and family formation, there is a clear value in understanding how new policies affect children’s likelihood of living in healthy two-parent families. Welfare policy is an important starting point; a stated goal of the 1996 welfare reforms was to encourage the formation of two-parent families. However, recent random assignment studies of welfare and work programs have found only scattered and inconsistent effects on marriage, leaving policymakers with little guidance about whether these new policies are discouraging or promoting marriage. Understanding the role played by current policies is an important first step in considering the role interventions specifically designed to promote marriage might play in the future.

    This paper uses meta-analytic techniques to provide a systematic appraisal of how welfare reform policies in six studies representing 14 welfare programs have affected marriage and cohabitation among single-parent families overall and for a variety of subpopulations. In each of the studies examined, single parents were randomly assigned to a program that included some combination of mandatory employment services, enhanced earnings disregards, time limits on welfare receipt, or equalized eligibility for two-parent families, or to a control group that was neither eligible for the program’s services nor subject to its requirements. Random assignment ensures that any differences in outcomes for these two groups over time are attributable to the programs that were studied. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Berlin, Gordon
    Year: 2004

    My goal is to briefly summarize the evidence in three areas: (1) what we know about the effects of marriage, divorce, and single parenthood on children; (2) what we know about the effectiveness of policies and programs that seek to stem persistently high rates of divorce and out-of-wedlock childbearing; and (3) what we know about the likely effects of these policies on low-income families and children. The central focus of my remarks will be to explicate the role that marital education, family counseling, and related services might play in promoting and strengthening healthy marriages and to discuss what we know about the potential of strategies that seek to ameliorate the key stressors (for example, job loss, lack of income, domestic violence, and childbearing) that make it difficult to form marriages in the first place or act as a catalyst that eventually breaks up existing marriages.
    (author abstract)

    My goal is to briefly summarize the evidence in three areas: (1) what we know about the effects of marriage, divorce, and single parenthood on children; (2) what we know about the effectiveness of policies and programs that seek to stem persistently high rates of divorce and out-of-wedlock childbearing; and (3) what we know about the likely effects of these policies on low-income families and children. The central focus of my remarks will be to explicate the role that marital education, family counseling, and related services might play in promoting and strengthening healthy marriages and to discuss what we know about the potential of strategies that seek to ameliorate the key stressors (for example, job loss, lack of income, domestic violence, and childbearing) that make it difficult to form marriages in the first place or act as a catalyst that eventually breaks up existing marriages.
    (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Fein, David J.
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2004

    The prisms social scientists have used to study marriage mostly have not been focused on the lower end of the economic spectrum. There has been considerable attention to racial and ethnic minorities and, more recently, to relationships among unwed parents. Although these populations are disproportionately poor, their distinctive attitudes and behaviors could reflect many influences other than economic status. Many analyses of marriage outcomes in the general population have included economic indicators as covariates. Very few, however, have examined carefully the effects of economic or other causal variables among the most disadvantaged sample members (Fein, 2003; Fein et al., 2003).

    Emerging federal initiatives seeking to support marriage have increased the need for improved information on low-income married couples. These needs begin with basic descriptive statistics. Research on fragile families has demonstrated that simple facts can be very useful in stimulating thinking about interventions for couples. For example, the finding that a substantial majority of unwed...

    The prisms social scientists have used to study marriage mostly have not been focused on the lower end of the economic spectrum. There has been considerable attention to racial and ethnic minorities and, more recently, to relationships among unwed parents. Although these populations are disproportionately poor, their distinctive attitudes and behaviors could reflect many influences other than economic status. Many analyses of marriage outcomes in the general population have included economic indicators as covariates. Very few, however, have examined carefully the effects of economic or other causal variables among the most disadvantaged sample members (Fein, 2003; Fein et al., 2003).

    Emerging federal initiatives seeking to support marriage have increased the need for improved information on low-income married couples. These needs begin with basic descriptive statistics. Research on fragile families has demonstrated that simple facts can be very useful in stimulating thinking about interventions for couples. For example, the finding that a substantial majority of unwed couples are involved romantically around the time of birth but most of these relationships do not survive long after birth has stimulated interest in transition to parenthood programs (Dion et al., 2003). A similar body of descriptive evidence on low-income married couples is needed to support thinking about the broad population of interest, subgroups that might be particularly important to target, and the kinds of services and policy changes that may be most helpful.

    One key need is to document the degree to which marriage outcomes vary across different forms and levels of economic disadvantage. Next, we must ascertain how different individual, family, and environmental characteristics of disadvantaged couples are associated with marriage outcomes. Beyond simple measures like marital satisfaction, it will be useful to assess how more specific aspects of marital interaction and related psychological processes — the proximate targets of relationship skills programs — vary across groups. Needed are analyses both of variation in outcomes at a point in time, as well as of changes in outcomes for a population over time.

    This paper starts the enterprise by assembling and assessing recent descriptive statistics on the formation and stability, characteristics, and quality of marriages in the low-income population of the U.S. In addition to culling findings from published reports, it also provides new findings from several recent surveys. (author abstract)

Sort by

Topical Area(s)

Popular Searches

Source

Year

Year ranges from 1975 to 2019

Reference Type

Research Methodology

Geographic Focus

Target Populations