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The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

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  • Individual Author: Williams, Julie
    Reference Type: Conference Paper
    Year: 2017

    This PowerPoint presentation from the 2017 NAWRS workshop summarizes the grant programs and evaluation overview, the programs evaluated, the key impact findings, and the conclusions from the Green Jobs and Health Care Impact Evaluation.

    This PowerPoint presentation from the 2017 NAWRS workshop summarizes the grant programs and evaluation overview, the programs evaluated, the key impact findings, and the conclusions from the Green Jobs and Health Care Impact Evaluation.

  • Individual Author: Laurin, Alexandre; Milligan, Kevin
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2017

    Many Canadian families with young children struggle with the cost of childcare. The tax system helps alleviate some of that burden. At the federal level, the Child Care Expense Deduction (CCED) allows eligible expenses to be deducted from taxable income. In most cases, expenses must be deducted on the return of the lower-income parent, whose claim cannot exceed two-thirds of income. The CCED is also applied provincially to reduce provincial taxes, except in Quebec where parents benefit from either a provincially subsidized childcare space or from an income-tested refundable tax credit. Most income tax systems give childcare expenditures special treatment, with different normative motivations in mind. Our approach is more in line with the optimal tax approach in that we evaluate different ways of subsidizing childcare through their contribution to improving efficiency and equity, rather than apply normative rules to determine a single "right" way to treat childcare in the tax system. (Author introduction)

    Many Canadian families with young children struggle with the cost of childcare. The tax system helps alleviate some of that burden. At the federal level, the Child Care Expense Deduction (CCED) allows eligible expenses to be deducted from taxable income. In most cases, expenses must be deducted on the return of the lower-income parent, whose claim cannot exceed two-thirds of income. The CCED is also applied provincially to reduce provincial taxes, except in Quebec where parents benefit from either a provincially subsidized childcare space or from an income-tested refundable tax credit. Most income tax systems give childcare expenditures special treatment, with different normative motivations in mind. Our approach is more in line with the optimal tax approach in that we evaluate different ways of subsidizing childcare through their contribution to improving efficiency and equity, rather than apply normative rules to determine a single "right" way to treat childcare in the tax system. (Author introduction)

  • Individual Author: Turner, Margery Austin
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2017

    Beginning with the settlement houses of the late 19th century, practitioners and policymakers have worked to tackle the challenges of poverty in place through an evolving set of strategies. Since then, federal, state, and local governments; philanthropy; charitable organizations; and research institutions have played important—often complementary—roles in designing, funding, and evaluating interventions. This memo traces that history. (Author abstract)

    Beginning with the settlement houses of the late 19th century, practitioners and policymakers have worked to tackle the challenges of poverty in place through an evolving set of strategies. Since then, federal, state, and local governments; philanthropy; charitable organizations; and research institutions have played important—often complementary—roles in designing, funding, and evaluating interventions. This memo traces that history. (Author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Fu, Ning; Gilleskie, Donna B,; Kneipp, Shawn; Schwartz, Todd; Sheely, Amanda
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2017

    The authors study the collateral consequences of women's criminal records on their future employment, welfare participation, and health outcomes. We jointly estimate dynamic structural equations for life-cycle behaviors (employment, school enrollment, and welfare receipt), criminal offenses, and general and mental health outcomes using a cohort of disadvantaged women surveyed at five non-uniform intervals over thirteen years. The detailed survey questions allow us to construct annual behavioral histories so that we can explain contemporaneous behaviors by time-varying policy variables as well as uniformly-lagged past behaviors. However, because the wording of survey questions may differ by responses to preceding questions, individual behaviors may be missing non-randomly in some years. We address the endogeneity of important lagged determinants by modeling observed behaviors over time, conditional on being observed/known, as well as the probability of their missingness. Both the behaviors and the missingness, which is defined partially by the variation in wording at each wave and...

    The authors study the collateral consequences of women's criminal records on their future employment, welfare participation, and health outcomes. We jointly estimate dynamic structural equations for life-cycle behaviors (employment, school enrollment, and welfare receipt), criminal offenses, and general and mental health outcomes using a cohort of disadvantaged women surveyed at five non-uniform intervals over thirteen years. The detailed survey questions allow us to construct annual behavioral histories so that we can explain contemporaneous behaviors by time-varying policy variables as well as uniformly-lagged past behaviors. However, because the wording of survey questions may differ by responses to preceding questions, individual behaviors may be missing non-randomly in some years. We address the endogeneity of important lagged determinants by modeling observed behaviors over time, conditional on being observed/known, as well as the probability of their missingness. Both the behaviors and the missingness, which is defined partially by the variation in wording at each wave and partially by a woman's chosen behaviors, are functions of her endogenous histories of behaviors and outcomes, exogenous characteristics, permanent and time-varying correlated unobserved heterogeneity, and random shocks. The econometric approach allows us to differentiate between possible direct causal impacts of criminal record on health and indirect effects on health through employment, education, and welfare receipt. We use the estimated dynamic model to simulate behaviors and health trajectories based on different criminal record histories and policy scenarios. (Author abstract) 

  • Individual Author: Thiede, Brian C; Kim, Hyojung; Valasik, Matthew
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2017

    The number of nonmetropolitan counties with high poverty rates increased between the 2000 Decennial Census and 2011–2015 (hereafter 2013) American Community Survey (ACS), and so did the share of the rural population residing in these disadvantaged areas. Over this time period, the percentage of rural counties with poverty rates of 20 percent or more increased from a fifth to nearly one-third, and the share of the rural population living in these places nearly doubled to over 31 percent. Levels of concentrated poverty increased substantially both before and after the Great Recession in rural areas, while increases in urban areas occurred mainly during years affected by the economic downturn (Box 1). Increases in county-level poverty rates were also concentrated in rural areas with small cities, and the share of the population residing in high-poverty counties increased much more among the non-Hispanic white and black populations in rural areas than among the rural Hispanic population. (Author summary)

    The number of nonmetropolitan counties with high poverty rates increased between the 2000 Decennial Census and 2011–2015 (hereafter 2013) American Community Survey (ACS), and so did the share of the rural population residing in these disadvantaged areas. Over this time period, the percentage of rural counties with poverty rates of 20 percent or more increased from a fifth to nearly one-third, and the share of the rural population living in these places nearly doubled to over 31 percent. Levels of concentrated poverty increased substantially both before and after the Great Recession in rural areas, while increases in urban areas occurred mainly during years affected by the economic downturn (Box 1). Increases in county-level poverty rates were also concentrated in rural areas with small cities, and the share of the population residing in high-poverty counties increased much more among the non-Hispanic white and black populations in rural areas than among the rural Hispanic population. (Author summary)

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