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The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

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  • Individual Author: Dreilinger, Danielle; Timmons, Jaimie C.
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2000

    On August 22, 1996, President Clinton signed into law the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA). One of the many stated goals under PRWORA was to encourage recipients of welfare to improve their economic status by returning to or entering employment. The emphasis on employment presents challenges for welfare caseworkers who must assist individuals in acquiring the necessary skills and training to enter employment. People with disabilities offer an additional challenge to caseworkers who in the past were not required to be familiar with disability-specific public supports, disability rights protections, and employment supports.

    This study examined how welfare reform affected Department of Transitional Assistance (DTA) case-workers in Massachusetts who may work with individuals with disabilities and investigated how their roles as caseworkers have changed since the reform. This brief will describe the findings of this research and share recommendations and resources with welfare caseworkers as they serve individuals with disabilities in...

    On August 22, 1996, President Clinton signed into law the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA). One of the many stated goals under PRWORA was to encourage recipients of welfare to improve their economic status by returning to or entering employment. The emphasis on employment presents challenges for welfare caseworkers who must assist individuals in acquiring the necessary skills and training to enter employment. People with disabilities offer an additional challenge to caseworkers who in the past were not required to be familiar with disability-specific public supports, disability rights protections, and employment supports.

    This study examined how welfare reform affected Department of Transitional Assistance (DTA) case-workers in Massachusetts who may work with individuals with disabilities and investigated how their roles as caseworkers have changed since the reform. This brief will describe the findings of this research and share recommendations and resources with welfare caseworkers as they serve individuals with disabilities in their caseloads. Although the findings are specifically related to DTA caseworkers in Massachusetts, it is our hope that the strategies provided are relevant to caseworkers in other states as well. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Timmons, Jaimie Ciulla; Foley, Susan; Whitney-Thomas, Jean; Green, Joseph
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2001

    Welfare reform has changed the landscape of social protection for individuals on the margins of economic independence. Reforms require individuals to develop marketable skills and acceptable work behaviors and to move along a path to employment. For individuals with disabilities in the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) system, substantial barriers and insufficient transitional supports can impede this path. The current study examined the impact of welfare reform on individuals with disabilities in the TANF system. This report summarizes the experiences of eleven individuals with disabilities receiving welfare benefits in Massachusetts and Wisconsin. Study findings trace a path from welfare to work, describe variations along this path for individuals with disabilities, and consider a range of supports necessary to address barriers. Implications for policy and practice are offered. (author abstract)

    Welfare reform has changed the landscape of social protection for individuals on the margins of economic independence. Reforms require individuals to develop marketable skills and acceptable work behaviors and to move along a path to employment. For individuals with disabilities in the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) system, substantial barriers and insufficient transitional supports can impede this path. The current study examined the impact of welfare reform on individuals with disabilities in the TANF system. This report summarizes the experiences of eleven individuals with disabilities receiving welfare benefits in Massachusetts and Wisconsin. Study findings trace a path from welfare to work, describe variations along this path for individuals with disabilities, and consider a range of supports necessary to address barriers. Implications for policy and practice are offered. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Cook, John T.; Skalicky, Anne
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2002

    This report summarizes the association of welfare sanctions--benefits terminated or reduced for failure to comply with behavioral requirements--with the health and food security of children younger than 3 years of age in 6 large U.S. cities (Baltimore, Boston, Little Rock, Los Angeles, Minneapolis, and Washington, D.C.). Information for the report includes data collected through the Children's Sentinel Nutrition Assessment Program (C-SNAP). The C-SNAP involved a sentinel sample of caregivers of infants and toddlers presenting at pediatric emergency rooms and primary care services for non-life- threatening conditions. Eligible caregivers were interviewed regarding the child's and parent's health, household demographics, use of public assistance programs, and food security. The main findings are summarized as follows: (1) welfare sanctions and benefits decrease are associated with significantly increased rates of hospitalizations for young children, and these effects were not altered by receipt of food stamp or WIC benefits; (2) welfare sanctions are associated with significantly...

    This report summarizes the association of welfare sanctions--benefits terminated or reduced for failure to comply with behavioral requirements--with the health and food security of children younger than 3 years of age in 6 large U.S. cities (Baltimore, Boston, Little Rock, Los Angeles, Minneapolis, and Washington, D.C.). Information for the report includes data collected through the Children's Sentinel Nutrition Assessment Program (C-SNAP). The C-SNAP involved a sentinel sample of caregivers of infants and toddlers presenting at pediatric emergency rooms and primary care services for non-life- threatening conditions. Eligible caregivers were interviewed regarding the child's and parent's health, household demographics, use of public assistance programs, and food security. The main findings are summarized as follows: (1) welfare sanctions and benefits decrease are associated with significantly increased rates of hospitalizations for young children, and these effects were not altered by receipt of food stamp or WIC benefits; (2) welfare sanctions are associated with significantly increased rates of food insecurity in households of young children; (3) in Boston and Minneapolis, infants and toddlers in 2001 had approximately a 40 percent higher risk of food insecurity compared to 1999, a 30 percent higher risk of being underweight, and a 50 percent higher risk of being hospitalized during an emergency room visit. The report's three appendices provide additional detail on the study's methodology, the food security questions, and a description of welfare sanction policies. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Krieger, Nancy; Chen, Jarvis T.; Waterman, Pamela D.; Rehkopf, David H.; Subramanian, S. V.
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2003

    Use of multilevel frameworks and area-based socioeconomic measures (ABSMs) for public health monitoring can potentially overcome the absence of socioeconomic data in most US public health surveillance systems.

    To assess whether ABSMs can meaningfully be used for diverse race/ethnicity–gender groups, we geocoded and linked public health surveillance data from Massachusetts and Rhode Island to 1990 block group, tract, and zip code ABSMs. Outcomes comprised death, birth, cancer incidence, tuberculosis, sexually transmitted infections, childhood lead poisoning, and nonfatal weapons-related injuries.

    Among White, Black, and Hispanic women and men, measures of economic deprivation (e.g., percentage below poverty) were most sensitive to expected socioeconomic gradients in health, with the most consistent results and maximal geocoding linkage evident for tract-level analyses. (author abstract)

    Use of multilevel frameworks and area-based socioeconomic measures (ABSMs) for public health monitoring can potentially overcome the absence of socioeconomic data in most US public health surveillance systems.

    To assess whether ABSMs can meaningfully be used for diverse race/ethnicity–gender groups, we geocoded and linked public health surveillance data from Massachusetts and Rhode Island to 1990 block group, tract, and zip code ABSMs. Outcomes comprised death, birth, cancer incidence, tuberculosis, sexually transmitted infections, childhood lead poisoning, and nonfatal weapons-related injuries.

    Among White, Black, and Hispanic women and men, measures of economic deprivation (e.g., percentage below poverty) were most sensitive to expected socioeconomic gradients in health, with the most consistent results and maximal geocoding linkage evident for tract-level analyses. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Kling, Jeffery; Liebman, Jeffrey; Katz, Lawrence; Sanbonmatsu, Lisa
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2004

    We study adult economic and health outcomes in the Moving to Opportunity (MTO) demonstration, a randomized housing mobility experiment in which families living in high poverty U.S. public housing projects in five cities were given vouchers to help them move to private housing units in lower-poverty neighborhoods. An “experimental” group was offered vouchers valid only in a low-poverty neighborhood; a “Section 8” group was offered traditional housing vouchers without geographic restriction; a control group was not offered vouchers. Our sample consists largely of black and Hispanic female household heads with children. Five years after random assignment, the families offered housing vouchers through MTO lived in safer neighborhoods that had significantly lower poverty rates than those of the control group not offered vouchers. We find no significant overall effects on adult employment, earnings, or public assistance receipt -- though our sample sizes are not sufficiently large to rule out moderate effects in either direction. In contrast, we do find significant mental health...

    We study adult economic and health outcomes in the Moving to Opportunity (MTO) demonstration, a randomized housing mobility experiment in which families living in high poverty U.S. public housing projects in five cities were given vouchers to help them move to private housing units in lower-poverty neighborhoods. An “experimental” group was offered vouchers valid only in a low-poverty neighborhood; a “Section 8” group was offered traditional housing vouchers without geographic restriction; a control group was not offered vouchers. Our sample consists largely of black and Hispanic female household heads with children. Five years after random assignment, the families offered housing vouchers through MTO lived in safer neighborhoods that had significantly lower poverty rates than those of the control group not offered vouchers. We find no significant overall effects on adult employment, earnings, or public assistance receipt -- though our sample sizes are not sufficiently large to rule out moderate effects in either direction. In contrast, we do find significant mental health benefits of the MTO intervention for the experimental group. We also demonstrate a more general pattern for the mental health results using both voucher groups of systematically larger effect sizes for groups experiencing larger changes in neighborhood poverty rates. In our analysis of physical health outcomes, we find a significant reduction in obesity for the experimental group, but no significant effects on four other aspects of physical health (general health, asthma, physical limitations, and hypertension) or on our summary measure of physical health.

    (author abstract)

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