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The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

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  • Individual Author: Kimmel, Jean
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 1998

    Because women typically serve as primary care providers for their children, female labor force participation behavior is likely to be affected significantly by the costs associated with replacing maternal care with non-maternal care. While some evidence of this phenomenon exists in the economics literature, discrepancies across studies make it difficult to provide conclusive evidence of the employment effects of these child care costs. This paper uses an improved SIPP survey design to present new evidence regarding the degree to which child care prices impede mothers’ employment behavior, with additional evidence of the difference in these elasticities across marital status, empirical technique, and equation specification. This permits linking this paper to the existing evidence, drawing the conclusion that child care prices impede mothers’ employment behavior significantly, with single mothers exhibiting less responsiveness in their labor force participation behavior to child care price changes than married mothers. Generally, these results support the basic finding of Ribar (...

    Because women typically serve as primary care providers for their children, female labor force participation behavior is likely to be affected significantly by the costs associated with replacing maternal care with non-maternal care. While some evidence of this phenomenon exists in the economics literature, discrepancies across studies make it difficult to provide conclusive evidence of the employment effects of these child care costs. This paper uses an improved SIPP survey design to present new evidence regarding the degree to which child care prices impede mothers’ employment behavior, with additional evidence of the difference in these elasticities across marital status, empirical technique, and equation specification. This permits linking this paper to the existing evidence, drawing the conclusion that child care prices impede mothers’ employment behavior significantly, with single mothers exhibiting less responsiveness in their labor force participation behavior to child care price changes than married mothers. Generally, these results support the basic finding of Ribar (1992), reject the smaller price of care elasticities found by Averett et al. (1997), Blau and Robins (1988), Connelly (1992), and Tolin (1992), but replicate the lower elasticities found in these papers by changing equation specifications. Also, significant sensitivity in the price elasticity is revealed, particularly with respect to changes in equation specification. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Schumacher, Rachel; Greenberg, Mark
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 1999

    In light of significant welfare caseload declines since the passage of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA) of 1996, many questions have been raised about the circumstances of families and children no longer receiving Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF) cash assistance. In response to these questions, a number of states have initiated what have come to be known as "leaver" studies, examining the situations of families whose welfare cases have been closed. Initial study results found that a majority of survey respondents who had left welfare were now working, typically for more than thirty hours a week, and typically in jobs with wages below the poverty line. A number of the leaver studies also seek information concerning the child care arrangements or use of child care subsidies by families leaving welfare. This paper describes key findings from a review of data relevant to child care gathered through surveys of families who have left welfare. (author abstract)

    In light of significant welfare caseload declines since the passage of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA) of 1996, many questions have been raised about the circumstances of families and children no longer receiving Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF) cash assistance. In response to these questions, a number of states have initiated what have come to be known as "leaver" studies, examining the situations of families whose welfare cases have been closed. Initial study results found that a majority of survey respondents who had left welfare were now working, typically for more than thirty hours a week, and typically in jobs with wages below the poverty line. A number of the leaver studies also seek information concerning the child care arrangements or use of child care subsidies by families leaving welfare. This paper describes key findings from a review of data relevant to child care gathered through surveys of families who have left welfare. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Henly, Julia R.; Lyons, Sandra
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2000

    Low-income working mothers face significant child care challenges. These challenges are particularly salient in an era of welfare reform, when welfare recipients are under increased pressure to find a job. The current study examines how child care demands are negotiated for an urban sample of low-income mothers. The sample includes a racially and ethnically diverse group of 57 respondents with and without welfare experience who are mothering children under 13 years of age and working in entry-level jobs. Findings suggest that respondents seek arrangements that are affordable, convenient, and safe, and informal arrangements may be most compatible with convenience and cost considerations. Informal care is not universally available, however, and may be less reliable. Implications for child care policy are discussed. (author abstract)

    Low-income working mothers face significant child care challenges. These challenges are particularly salient in an era of welfare reform, when welfare recipients are under increased pressure to find a job. The current study examines how child care demands are negotiated for an urban sample of low-income mothers. The sample includes a racially and ethnically diverse group of 57 respondents with and without welfare experience who are mothering children under 13 years of age and working in entry-level jobs. Findings suggest that respondents seek arrangements that are affordable, convenient, and safe, and informal arrangements may be most compatible with convenience and cost considerations. Informal care is not universally available, however, and may be less reliable. Implications for child care policy are discussed. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Mensing, James F.; French, Desiree; Fuller, Bruce; Kagan, Sharon Lynn
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2000

    This paper examines the reasoning and experiences of mothers in selecting child care while trying to meet welfare-to-work requirements. Three theoretical positions that have been used to look at child care selection -rational choice, structuralist, and cultural - are examined and critiqued in light of a structural developmental psychology perspective. The paper then reports on semi-structured, open-ended interviews with seven mothers from three different ethnic groups—African- American, Anglo, and Latina—who range in age from 21 to 42. Interviews covered a 15-month period of time following the mothers' enrollment in a welfare- to-work program. The major finding is that mothers have hierarchically ordered criteria for evaluating child care possibilities, and the preeminent criteria is that they trust the child care provider to keep their children safe and well cared for. Structural constraints on the mothers choices are also analyzed. The findings in this article suggest that policy makers should focus on issues of trust and legitimacy of child care providers, as well as on more...

    This paper examines the reasoning and experiences of mothers in selecting child care while trying to meet welfare-to-work requirements. Three theoretical positions that have been used to look at child care selection -rational choice, structuralist, and cultural - are examined and critiqued in light of a structural developmental psychology perspective. The paper then reports on semi-structured, open-ended interviews with seven mothers from three different ethnic groups—African- American, Anglo, and Latina—who range in age from 21 to 42. Interviews covered a 15-month period of time following the mothers' enrollment in a welfare- to-work program. The major finding is that mothers have hierarchically ordered criteria for evaluating child care possibilities, and the preeminent criteria is that they trust the child care provider to keep their children safe and well cared for. Structural constraints on the mothers choices are also analyzed. The findings in this article suggest that policy makers should focus on issues of trust and legitimacy of child care providers, as well as on more traditional concerns of supply and educational quality. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Michalopoulos, Charles; Robins, Philip K.
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2000

    This paper examines employment and child-care choices of single-parent families with young children in the United States and Canada, using a pooled data set based on recent national surveys in each country. We find that the employment and child-care choices of Canadian families are similar to those of U.S. families. Estimates of a model of employment and child-care choices indicate significant effects of child-care subsidies, child-care prices, and wage rates on employment and child-care choices. (author abstract)

    This paper examines employment and child-care choices of single-parent families with young children in the United States and Canada, using a pooled data set based on recent national surveys in each country. We find that the employment and child-care choices of Canadian families are similar to those of U.S. families. Estimates of a model of employment and child-care choices indicate significant effects of child-care subsidies, child-care prices, and wage rates on employment and child-care choices. (author abstract)

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