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The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

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  • Individual Author: Sweeney, Eileen; Schott, Liz; Lazere, Ed; Fremstad, Shawn; Goldberg, Heidi; Guyer, Jocelyn; Super, David; Johnson, Clifford
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2000

    This report describes an array of innovative strategies and practical ideas for helping low-income families with children. There is a window of opportunity for these new strategies as many states have tremendous financial resources available. The Temporary Assistance For Needy Families (TANF) program rules have been clarified, and families are running up to the time limits which welfare reform imposed in 1996. The proposals are organized into three categories. The first, providing work supports for low-income families, includes suggestions for: (1) worker stipends; (2) state earned income tax credits; (3) transportation assistance; (4) accessible and affordable child care; (5) job retention and advancement services; (6) short-term aid; (7) expanded health care coverage; and (8) incentives to pay child support. A second section discusses addressing barriers parents face to enable them to work, and the third section considers the needs of specific populations, such as the disabled, legal immigrants, victims of violence, and low-income noncustodial parents. The primary focus is on...

    This report describes an array of innovative strategies and practical ideas for helping low-income families with children. There is a window of opportunity for these new strategies as many states have tremendous financial resources available. The Temporary Assistance For Needy Families (TANF) program rules have been clarified, and families are running up to the time limits which welfare reform imposed in 1996. The proposals are organized into three categories. The first, providing work supports for low-income families, includes suggestions for: (1) worker stipends; (2) state earned income tax credits; (3) transportation assistance; (4) accessible and affordable child care; (5) job retention and advancement services; (6) short-term aid; (7) expanded health care coverage; and (8) incentives to pay child support. A second section discusses addressing barriers parents face to enable them to work, and the third section considers the needs of specific populations, such as the disabled, legal immigrants, victims of violence, and low-income noncustodial parents. The primary focus is on promising initiatives that can be financed through the use of federal or state welfare funds. Two innovative strategies that can draw on federal or federally matched funds available through the Medicaid or food stamp programs are also included. Appendixes A and B discuss the rules governing use of TANF, and Appendix C discusses food stamp eligibility and benefits. Two other appendixes contain resources for additional information and a list of proposals cited in the report. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Bobo, Lawrence; Oliver, Melvin; Johnson, James; Valenzuela, Abel
    Reference Type: Book Chapter/Book
    Year: 2000

    This book cuts through the powerful mythology surrounding Los Angeles to reveal the causes of inequality in a city that has weathered rapid population change, economic restructuring, and fractious ethnic relations. The sources of disadvantage and the means of getting ahead differ greatly among the city's myriad ethnic groups. The demand for unskilled labor is stronger here than in other cities, allowing Los Angeles's large population of immigrant workers with little education to find work in light manufacturing and low-paid service jobs.

    A less beneficial result of this trend is the increased marginalization of the city's low-skilled black workers, who do not enjoy the extended ethnic networks of many of the new immigrant groups and who must contend with persistent negative racial stereotypes.

    Patterns of residential segregation are also more diffuse in Los Angeles, with many once-black neighborhoods now split evenly between blacks, Hispanics, Asians, and other minorities. Inequality in Los Angeles cannot be reduced to a simple black-white divide. Nonetheless, in...

    This book cuts through the powerful mythology surrounding Los Angeles to reveal the causes of inequality in a city that has weathered rapid population change, economic restructuring, and fractious ethnic relations. The sources of disadvantage and the means of getting ahead differ greatly among the city's myriad ethnic groups. The demand for unskilled labor is stronger here than in other cities, allowing Los Angeles's large population of immigrant workers with little education to find work in light manufacturing and low-paid service jobs.

    A less beneficial result of this trend is the increased marginalization of the city's low-skilled black workers, who do not enjoy the extended ethnic networks of many of the new immigrant groups and who must contend with persistent negative racial stereotypes.

    Patterns of residential segregation are also more diffuse in Los Angeles, with many once-black neighborhoods now split evenly between blacks, Hispanics, Asians, and other minorities. Inequality in Los Angeles cannot be reduced to a simple black-white divide. Nonetheless, in this thoroughly multicultural city, race remains a crucial factor shaping economic fortunes. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Blank, Rebecca ; Card, David
    Reference Type: Book Chapter/Book
    Year: 2000

    Do plummeting welfare caseloads and rising employment prove that welfare reform policies have succeeded, or is this success due primarily to the job explosion created by today's robust economy? With roughly one to two million people expected to leave welfare in the coming decades, uncertainty about their long-term prospects troubles many social scientists. Finding Jobs offers a thorough examination of the low-skill labor market and its capacity to sustain this rising tide of workers, many of whom are single mothers with limited education. Each chapter examines specific trends in the labor market to ask such questions as: How secure are these low-skill jobs, particularly in the event of a recession? What can these workers expect in terms of wage growth and career advancement opportunities? How will a surge in the workforce affect opportunities for those already employed in low-skill jobs?

    Finding Jobs offers both good and bad news about work and welfare reform. Although the research presented in this book demonstrates that it is possible to find jobs for people who have...

    Do plummeting welfare caseloads and rising employment prove that welfare reform policies have succeeded, or is this success due primarily to the job explosion created by today's robust economy? With roughly one to two million people expected to leave welfare in the coming decades, uncertainty about their long-term prospects troubles many social scientists. Finding Jobs offers a thorough examination of the low-skill labor market and its capacity to sustain this rising tide of workers, many of whom are single mothers with limited education. Each chapter examines specific trends in the labor market to ask such questions as: How secure are these low-skill jobs, particularly in the event of a recession? What can these workers expect in terms of wage growth and career advancement opportunities? How will a surge in the workforce affect opportunities for those already employed in low-skill jobs?

    Finding Jobs offers both good and bad news about work and welfare reform. Although the research presented in this book demonstrates that it is possible to find jobs for people who have traditionally relied on public assistance, it also offers cautionary evidence that today's strong economy may mask enduring underlying problems. Finding Jobs shows that the low-wage labor market is particularly vulnerable to economic downswings and that lower skilled workers enjoy less job stability. Several chapters illustrate why financial incentives, such as the Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC), are as essential to encouraging workforce participation as job search programs. Other chapters show the importance of including provisions for health insurance, and of increasing subsidies for child care to assist the large population of working single mothers affected by welfare reform.

    Finding Jobs also examines the potential costs of new welfare restrictions. It looks at how states can improve their flexibility in imposing time limits on families receiving welfare, and calls into question the cutbacks in eligibility for immigrants, who traditionally have relied less on public assistance than their native-born counterparts.

    Finding Jobs is an informative and wide-ranging inquiry into the issues raised by welfare reform. Based on comprehensive new data, this volume offers valuable guidance to policymakers looking to design policies that will increase work, raise incomes, and lower poverty in changing economic conditions. (author abstract)

    Table of Contents

    Introduction: The Labor Market and Welfare Reform - Rebecca Blank and David Card

    Part I - The Demand for Low-Wage Workers

    Chapter 1: The Employment, Earnings, and Income of Less Skilled Workers Over the Business Cycle - Hilary Hoynes

    Chapter 2: Displacement and Wage Effects of Welfare Reform - Timothy Bartik 

    Part II - Wages and Job Characteristics in the Less Skilled Labor Market

    Chapter 3: Job Change and Job Stability Among Less Skilled Young Workers - Harry Holzer and Robert LaLonde

    Chapter 4: Wage Progression Among Less Skilled Workers - Tricia Gladden and Christopher Taber

    Chapter 5: Gender Differences in the Low-Wage Labor Market - Jane Waldfogel and Susan Mayer

    Chapter 6: Health Insurance and Less Skilled Workers - Janet Currie and Aaron Yelowitz

    Chapter 7: Employee-Based Versus Employer-Based Subsidies to Low-Wage Workers: A Public Finance Perspective - Stacy Dickert-Conlin and Douglas Holtz-Eakin

    Part III - Public Politics to Increase Employment and Earnings of Less Skilled Workers

    Chapter 8: Public Service Employment and Mandatory Work: A Policy Whose Time Has Come and Gone and Gone Again? - David Ellwood and Elisabeth Welty

    Chapter 9: Financial Incentives for Increasing Work and Income among Low-Income Families - Rebecca Blank, David Card, and Phillip Robins

    Chapter 10: Child Care and Mothers' Employment Decisions - Patricia Anderson and Phillip Levine

    Part IV - The Impact of Welfare Reform

    Chapter 11: Use of Means-Tested Transfer Programs by Immigrants, Their Children, and Their Children's Children - Kristin Butcher and Luojia Hu

    Chapter 12: Time Limits - Robert Moffitt and LaDonna Pavetti 

  • Individual Author: King, Elisabeth; Elliott, Mark
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2000

    This report describes family centered employment strategies. It begins with a look at the economics of families in poverty and provides a brief outline of the many ways in which employment and training programs have begun to work with families. The report then examines the work of four employment programs now offering employment services to families: (1) a transitional employment program; (2) a refugee resettlement program; (3) a youth employment program; and (4) a faith-based program. The key elements that have enabled these programs to provide services successfully are discussed. The major federal programs used to meet the employment needs of the poor, however, remain focused principally on serving individuals. Recent Clinton administration proposals indicate that the family is beginning to occupy a more central place in the discussion of federal employment programs. Until public resources are available, it seems unlikely that many organizations will make the extraordinary effort to combine multiple revenue sources needed to serve families' employment needs successfully. An...

    This report describes family centered employment strategies. It begins with a look at the economics of families in poverty and provides a brief outline of the many ways in which employment and training programs have begun to work with families. The report then examines the work of four employment programs now offering employment services to families: (1) a transitional employment program; (2) a refugee resettlement program; (3) a youth employment program; and (4) a faith-based program. The key elements that have enabled these programs to provide services successfully are discussed. The major federal programs used to meet the employment needs of the poor, however, remain focused principally on serving individuals. Recent Clinton administration proposals indicate that the family is beginning to occupy a more central place in the discussion of federal employment programs. Until public resources are available, it seems unlikely that many organizations will make the extraordinary effort to combine multiple revenue sources needed to serve families' employment needs successfully. An appendix describes the four programs in detail.

  • Individual Author: Bugarin, Alicia
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2001

    This report presents information on services, funding, clientele and program outcomes for 39 of California's job training, employment and vocational education programs. The information may be particularly useful as the Legislature considers the Governor's proposal to reorganize key employment programs. (publisher abstract)

    This report presents information on services, funding, clientele and program outcomes for 39 of California's job training, employment and vocational education programs. The information may be particularly useful as the Legislature considers the Governor's proposal to reorganize key employment programs. (publisher abstract)

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