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The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

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  • Individual Author: Berger, Mark C.; Black, Dan A.
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 1992

    We examine the effects of child care subsidies on the labor supply decisions of low-income mothers and on the quality of care their children receive using newly gathered data on two programs that subsidize the child care expenditures of families in Kentucky. We find that single mothers who receive child care subsidies are more likely to be employed and are generally more satisfied with the care their children receive, but subsidies have little effect on hours worked. (Author abstract)

    We examine the effects of child care subsidies on the labor supply decisions of low-income mothers and on the quality of care their children receive using newly gathered data on two programs that subsidize the child care expenditures of families in Kentucky. We find that single mothers who receive child care subsidies are more likely to be employed and are generally more satisfied with the care their children receive, but subsidies have little effect on hours worked. (Author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Bloom, Howard
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 1996

    This paper examines issues and options for the design of a major non-experimental study to measure the impacts of a large-scale, saturation-level demonstration program to promote employment among residents of selected public housing developments. The program, Jobs-Plus, is being launched by the Manpower Demonstration Research Corporation in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development and The Rockefeller Foundation. [An updated, full list of the Jobs-Plus funding partners is provided at the front of this paper.] Because Jobs-Plus will be a comprehensive community initiative, available to all residents of the several public housing developments where it is implemented, the program cannot be evaluated using a randomized experiment, the now-standard method for measuring the impacts of employment and training programs. However, because community-wide initiatives are becoming an increasingly important component of social policy, it is essential to develop methods for determining their success. It is the purpose of this paper, therefore, to explore...

    This paper examines issues and options for the design of a major non-experimental study to measure the impacts of a large-scale, saturation-level demonstration program to promote employment among residents of selected public housing developments. The program, Jobs-Plus, is being launched by the Manpower Demonstration Research Corporation in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development and The Rockefeller Foundation. [An updated, full list of the Jobs-Plus funding partners is provided at the front of this paper.] Because Jobs-Plus will be a comprehensive community initiative, available to all residents of the several public housing developments where it is implemented, the program cannot be evaluated using a randomized experiment, the now-standard method for measuring the impacts of employment and training programs. However, because community-wide initiatives are becoming an increasingly important component of social policy, it is essential to develop methods for determining their success. It is the purpose of this paper, therefore, to explore possibilities for doing so. (author abstract)

    Other resources on the Jobs-Plus project are available here.

  • Individual Author: Brooks, Margaret G.; Buckner, John C.
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 1996

    Within the context of a cross-sectional epidemiological study of 220 homeless and 216 low-income housed mothers, the present study examined the work experiences, barriers to employment, and facilitating factors such as education and literacy that increase the likelihood of work among low-income women. Analyses were focused on sociodemographic variables such as age, race, and marital status. Findings suggest the need for programs of education, early intervention, and job training. However, the availability of adequate jobs and affordable child care are prerequisites for poor, single mothers to become self-supporting. (author abstract)

    Within the context of a cross-sectional epidemiological study of 220 homeless and 216 low-income housed mothers, the present study examined the work experiences, barriers to employment, and facilitating factors such as education and literacy that increase the likelihood of work among low-income women. Analyses were focused on sociodemographic variables such as age, race, and marital status. Findings suggest the need for programs of education, early intervention, and job training. However, the availability of adequate jobs and affordable child care are prerequisites for poor, single mothers to become self-supporting. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Eissa, Nada; Hoynes, Hilary W.
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 1998

    Over 18 million taxpayers are projected to receive the Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) in tax year 1997, at a total cost to the federal government of about 25 billion dollars. The EITC is refundable, so that any amount of the credit exceeding the family's tax liability is returned in the form of a cash refund. Advocates of the credit argue that this redistribution occurs with much less distortion to labor supply than that caused by other elements of the welfare system. This popular view that the credit is unlikely to hold among married couples. Theory suggests that primary earners (typically men) would increase labor force participation, but secondary earners would reduce their labor supply in response to an EITC. We study the labor supply response of married couples to several EITC expansions between 1984 and 1996. While our primary interest is the response to changes in the budget set induced by the EITC, our estimation strategy takes account of budget set changes caused by federal tax policy, and by cross-sectional variation in wages, income, and family size. We use both...

    Over 18 million taxpayers are projected to receive the Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) in tax year 1997, at a total cost to the federal government of about 25 billion dollars. The EITC is refundable, so that any amount of the credit exceeding the family's tax liability is returned in the form of a cash refund. Advocates of the credit argue that this redistribution occurs with much less distortion to labor supply than that caused by other elements of the welfare system. This popular view that the credit is unlikely to hold among married couples. Theory suggests that primary earners (typically men) would increase labor force participation, but secondary earners would reduce their labor supply in response to an EITC. We study the labor supply response of married couples to several EITC expansions between 1984 and 1996. While our primary interest is the response to changes in the budget set induced by the EITC, our estimation strategy takes account of budget set changes caused by federal tax policy, and by cross-sectional variation in wages, income, and family size. We use both quasi-experimental and reduced form labor supply models to estimate the impact of EITC induced tax changes. The results suggest that EITC expansions between 1984 and 1996 increased married men's labor force participation only slightly but reduced married women's labor force participation by over a full percentage point. Overall, the evidence suggests that family labor supply and pre-tax family earnings fell among married couples. Our results imply that the EITC is effectively subsidizing married mothers to stay at home, and therefore have implications for the design of the program. (Author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Dehejia, Rajeev H.; Wahba, Sadek
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 1999

    This article uses propensity score methods to estimate the treatment impact of the National Supported Work (NSW) Demonstration, a labor training program, on postintervention earnings. We use data from Lalonde's evaluation of nonexperimental methods that combine the treated units from a randomized evaluation of the NSW with nonexperimental comparison units drawn from survey datasets. We apply propensity score methods to this composite dataset and demonstrate that, relative to the estimators that Lalonde evaluates, propensity score estimates of the treatment impact are much closer to the experimental benchmark estimate. Propensity score methods assume that the variables associated with assignment to treatment are observed (referred to as ignorable treatment assignment, or selection on observables). Even under this assumption, it is difficult to control for differences between the treatment and comparison groups when they are dissimilar and when there are many preintervention variables. The estimated propensity score (the probability of assignment to treatment, conditional on...

    This article uses propensity score methods to estimate the treatment impact of the National Supported Work (NSW) Demonstration, a labor training program, on postintervention earnings. We use data from Lalonde's evaluation of nonexperimental methods that combine the treated units from a randomized evaluation of the NSW with nonexperimental comparison units drawn from survey datasets. We apply propensity score methods to this composite dataset and demonstrate that, relative to the estimators that Lalonde evaluates, propensity score estimates of the treatment impact are much closer to the experimental benchmark estimate. Propensity score methods assume that the variables associated with assignment to treatment are observed (referred to as ignorable treatment assignment, or selection on observables). Even under this assumption, it is difficult to control for differences between the treatment and comparison groups when they are dissimilar and when there are many preintervention variables. The estimated propensity score (the probability of assignment to treatment, conditional on preintervention variables) summarizes the preintervention variables. This offers a diagnostic on the comparability of the treatment and comparison groups, because one has only to compare the estimated propensity score across the two groups. We discuss several methods (such as stratification and matching) that use the propensity score to estimate the treatment impact. When the range of estimated propensity scores of the treatment and comparison groups overlap, these methods can estimate the treatment impact for the treatment group. A sensitivity analysis shows that our estimates are not sensitive to the specification of the estimated propensity score, but are sensitive to the assumption of selection on observables. We conclude that when the treatment and comparison groups overlap, and when the variables determining assignment to treatment are observed, these methods provide a means to estimate the treatment impact. Even though propensity score methods are not always applicable, they offer a diagnostic on the quality of nonexperimental comparison groups in terms of observable preintervention variables. (author abstract)

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