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The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

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  • Individual Author: Pindus, Nancy; Koralek, Robin; Martinson, Karin; Trutko, John
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2000

    The policy context for both welfare programs and employment and training programs operated by the workforce development system has changed dramatically in the past few years.  The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA) of 1996 requires welfare agencies to focus more than in the past on moving welfare recipients into employment.  PRWORA provides funding to welfare agencies in the form of a block grant, Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF), to support efforts to achieve this objective.  The need to move more TANF clients into work activities and jobs means that TANF agencies need to expand or develop structural and organizational arrangements that make this possible, including coordinating with the workforce development system.

    The Welfare-to-Work (WtW) Grants Program provides additional funding to serve welfare recipients, but the resources flow through the employment and training system, now commonly called the workforce development system.  WtW creates new incentives for the workforce development system to coordinate with the...

    The policy context for both welfare programs and employment and training programs operated by the workforce development system has changed dramatically in the past few years.  The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA) of 1996 requires welfare agencies to focus more than in the past on moving welfare recipients into employment.  PRWORA provides funding to welfare agencies in the form of a block grant, Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF), to support efforts to achieve this objective.  The need to move more TANF clients into work activities and jobs means that TANF agencies need to expand or develop structural and organizational arrangements that make this possible, including coordinating with the workforce development system.

    The Welfare-to-Work (WtW) Grants Program provides additional funding to serve welfare recipients, but the resources flow through the employment and training system, now commonly called the workforce development system.  WtW creates new incentives for the workforce development system to coordinate with the welfare system on behalf of welfare recipients.  The workforce development system is also changing, moving towards universal access to employment related services and the use of technology to serve job seekers and employers better.

    States and localities are responding to this dynamic environment in different ways, and their responses reflect historical relationships as well as current policy objectives.  This study builds on earlier research in the area of service coordination and integration, and provides a current description of local operational interaction between welfare and workforce development programs.  It is based on a review of the literature and site visits to twelve localities in six states.  The main intent is to add to the understanding about how welfare recipients receive employment-related services.  The study identifies different approaches to coordination, the advantages of coordination for clients, and factors that promote and impede coordination. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Relave, Nanette
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2000

    This document examines policy and program issues related to promoting employment retention among recipients of Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) who have moved from welfare into employment. The document begins with background information about the work requirements and time limits affecting TANF recipients. The second section discusses the following program and policy issues: (1) the importance of retention services in the context of welfare reform; (2) individuals who should be targeted for retention services; (3) strategies promoting steady employment (pre-employment services, job placement that focuses on good jobs, support services, work supplements and work incentives, post-employment services); (4) when retention services are required; (5) how retention services should be delivered; (6) available funding for retention services; and (7) ways agencies can engage employers in retention services. The third section presents a brief overview of the findings of research on the effectiveness of various strategies for promoting employment retention among welfare...

    This document examines policy and program issues related to promoting employment retention among recipients of Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) who have moved from welfare into employment. The document begins with background information about the work requirements and time limits affecting TANF recipients. The second section discusses the following program and policy issues: (1) the importance of retention services in the context of welfare reform; (2) individuals who should be targeted for retention services; (3) strategies promoting steady employment (pre-employment services, job placement that focuses on good jobs, support services, work supplements and work incentives, post-employment services); (4) when retention services are required; (5) how retention services should be delivered; (6) available funding for retention services; and (7) ways agencies can engage employers in retention services. The third section presents a brief overview of the findings of research on the effectiveness of various strategies for promoting employment retention among welfare recipients and low-wage workers. The document's final section describes successful strategies and programs that have been implemented in the following areas: Denver, Colorado; Florida; Massachusetts; Bergen County, New Jersey; Rhode Island; and New York City. The bibliography lists the 8 resource Web sites and 14 publications. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Witte, Ann D.; Queralt, Magaly
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2003

    We find that reforms in the Rhode Island subsidized child care program, including income and age eligibility expansions and increases in the reimbursement rates paid to formal providers, significantly increased the likelihood that current and former welfare families: a) would use child care subsidies and b) would work 20 or more hours per week. In addition, these policy changes significantly increased the probability that family heads of household would leave welfare for work. The most powerful impact of the Rhode Island changes in child care policies was on families that had left welfare (i.e., former cash recipients) and that worked at least 20 hours per week. These policy changes had less effect on families receiving cash assistance and enrolled in some approved activity (e.g., education or training) other than work. We were not able to assess the impact of the Rhode Island policy changes on families who were never on cash assistance. However, the large increase in the number of such families receiving child care subsidies after the reforms were instituted suggests that the...

    We find that reforms in the Rhode Island subsidized child care program, including income and age eligibility expansions and increases in the reimbursement rates paid to formal providers, significantly increased the likelihood that current and former welfare families: a) would use child care subsidies and b) would work 20 or more hours per week. In addition, these policy changes significantly increased the probability that family heads of household would leave welfare for work. The most powerful impact of the Rhode Island changes in child care policies was on families that had left welfare (i.e., former cash recipients) and that worked at least 20 hours per week. These policy changes had less effect on families receiving cash assistance and enrolled in some approved activity (e.g., education or training) other than work. We were not able to assess the impact of the Rhode Island policy changes on families who were never on cash assistance. However, the large increase in the number of such families receiving child care subsidies after the reforms were instituted suggests that the impact may have been substantial. We also estimate that Rhode Island's reform of its cash assistance program and of its child care subsidy program, in combination, almost tripled the probability that a typical head of household currently or formerly receiving welfare would work 20 or more hours per week (i.e., the probability increased from 7% in the second quarter of 1996 to 22% in the second quarter of 2000) and almost halved the probability that a single mother in the sample would be on cash assistance and neither working nor in some other approved activity (i.e., such probability decreased from 47% in the second quarter of 1996 to 25% in the second quarter of 2000).  (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Bloom, Dan; Redcross, Cindy; Hsueh, JoAnn; Rich, Sarah; Martin, Vanessa
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2007

    In the post-welfare reform world, an important policy question has taken new prominence: how to improve employment prospects for the millions of Americans who face serious obstacles to steady work. These individuals, including long-term welfare recipients, people with disabilities, those with health or behavioral health problems, and former prisoners, often become trapped in costly public assistance and enforcement systems and find themselves living in poverty, outside the mainstream in a society that prizes work and self-sufficiency. The Enhanced Services for the Hard-to-Employ Demonstration and Evaluation Project, sponsored by the Administration for Children and Families and the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation in the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), with additional funding from the Department of Labor, is evaluating four diverse strategies designed to improve employment and other outcomes for low-income parents and others who face serious barriers to employment. (Author abstract)

    In the post-welfare reform world, an important policy question has taken new prominence: how to improve employment prospects for the millions of Americans who face serious obstacles to steady work. These individuals, including long-term welfare recipients, people with disabilities, those with health or behavioral health problems, and former prisoners, often become trapped in costly public assistance and enforcement systems and find themselves living in poverty, outside the mainstream in a society that prizes work and self-sufficiency. The Enhanced Services for the Hard-to-Employ Demonstration and Evaluation Project, sponsored by the Administration for Children and Families and the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation in the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), with additional funding from the Department of Labor, is evaluating four diverse strategies designed to improve employment and other outcomes for low-income parents and others who face serious barriers to employment. (Author abstract)

  • Individual Author: National Governor's Association (NGA) Center For Best Practices
    Reference Type: Stakeholder Resource
    Year: 2007

    Research studies during the past decade have shown that despite the large number of Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) recipients entering the workforce, many of these individuals have difficulty remaining employed and advancing in the labor market.
    
    Governors and other state leaders are in a strong position to assume a lead role in developing programs and policies that help TANF and low-income families achieve long-term self-sufficiency through stable employment. This Issue Brief lays out ways states can create opportunities for TANF clients and low-wage workers to advance in the labor market, including:
    -Helping them prepare for success in the workforce through education and skills development activities, career and work readiness credentials, and postsecondary education;
    -Establishing "launching pads" that can help them quickly advance in the labor market through such efforts as transitional jobs programs and career ladder strategies; and
    -Providing them with ongoing support...

    Research studies during the past decade have shown that despite the large number of Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) recipients entering the workforce, many of these individuals have difficulty remaining employed and advancing in the labor market.
    
    Governors and other state leaders are in a strong position to assume a lead role in developing programs and policies that help TANF and low-income families achieve long-term self-sufficiency through stable employment. This Issue Brief lays out ways states can create opportunities for TANF clients and low-wage workers to advance in the labor market, including:
    -Helping them prepare for success in the workforce through education and skills development activities, career and work readiness credentials, and postsecondary education;
    -Establishing "launching pads" that can help them quickly advance in the labor market through such efforts as transitional jobs programs and career ladder strategies; and
    -Providing them with ongoing support through earnings supplements, earnings disregards, work support benefits, and child and earned income tax credits.
    (author abstract)

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