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The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

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  • Individual Author: Bloom, Howard
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 1996

    This paper examines issues and options for the design of a major non-experimental study to measure the impacts of a large-scale, saturation-level demonstration program to promote employment among residents of selected public housing developments. The program, Jobs-Plus, is being launched by the Manpower Demonstration Research Corporation in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development and The Rockefeller Foundation. [An updated, full list of the Jobs-Plus funding partners is provided at the front of this paper.] Because Jobs-Plus will be a comprehensive community initiative, available to all residents of the several public housing developments where it is implemented, the program cannot be evaluated using a randomized experiment, the now-standard method for measuring the impacts of employment and training programs. However, because community-wide initiatives are becoming an increasingly important component of social policy, it is essential to develop methods for determining their success. It is the purpose of this paper, therefore, to explore...

    This paper examines issues and options for the design of a major non-experimental study to measure the impacts of a large-scale, saturation-level demonstration program to promote employment among residents of selected public housing developments. The program, Jobs-Plus, is being launched by the Manpower Demonstration Research Corporation in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development and The Rockefeller Foundation. [An updated, full list of the Jobs-Plus funding partners is provided at the front of this paper.] Because Jobs-Plus will be a comprehensive community initiative, available to all residents of the several public housing developments where it is implemented, the program cannot be evaluated using a randomized experiment, the now-standard method for measuring the impacts of employment and training programs. However, because community-wide initiatives are becoming an increasingly important component of social policy, it is essential to develop methods for determining their success. It is the purpose of this paper, therefore, to explore possibilities for doing so. (author abstract)

    Other resources on the Jobs-Plus project are available here.

  • Individual Author: Quint, Janet; Bos, Johannes; Polit, Denise
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 1997

    New Chance, a national research and demonstration program that operated between 1989 and 1992, was developed in a policy context marked by intense concern about teenage childbearing. That concern reflected the public's distress about three developments: the dramatic increase in the rate of out-of-wedlock childbearing over the past three decades, the long-term welfare costs incurred by young, poor women who become mothers, and the negative life prospects faced by their children. Little was known, however, about what kinds of programs and policies could help young mothers on welfare attain economic independence and could foster their children's development as well.

    The New Chance Demonstration was a rare and important opportunity to test the value of comprehensive services in assisting a disadvantaged group of families headed by young mothers who had first given birth as teenagers, who had dropped out of high school, and who were receiving Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC). The program, which operated in 16 locations (or "sites") in 10 states across...

    New Chance, a national research and demonstration program that operated between 1989 and 1992, was developed in a policy context marked by intense concern about teenage childbearing. That concern reflected the public's distress about three developments: the dramatic increase in the rate of out-of-wedlock childbearing over the past three decades, the long-term welfare costs incurred by young, poor women who become mothers, and the negative life prospects faced by their children. Little was known, however, about what kinds of programs and policies could help young mothers on welfare attain economic independence and could foster their children's development as well.

    The New Chance Demonstration was a rare and important opportunity to test the value of comprehensive services in assisting a disadvantaged group of families headed by young mothers who had first given birth as teenagers, who had dropped out of high school, and who were receiving Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC). The program, which operated in 16 locations (or "sites") in 10 states across the country, sought to help the young mothers acquire educational and vocational credentials and skills so that they could secure jobs offering opportunities for advancement and could thereby reduce, and eventually eliminate, their use of welfare. It also sought to motivate and assist participants in postponing additional childbearing and to help them become better parents. Finally, New Chance was explicitly "two-generational" in its approach, seeking to enhance the cognitive abilities, health, and socioemotional well-being of enrollees' children. The program was, for the most part, voluntary; that is, young women were generally not required to attend in order to receive public assistance. Instead, most joined it because they wanted to earn their General Educational Development (GED, or high school equivalency) certificates and the program offered free child care to enable them to participate.

    To evaluate the program's effectiveness, young women who applied and were determined to be eligible for New Chance were randomly assigned to one of two groups: the experimental group, whose members could enroll in the program, or the control group, whose members could not join New Chance but could receive other services available in their communities. To ascertain both short- and longer-term program effects, comparable information was collected from each member of both groups through in-home survey interviews conducted approximately 1½ and 3½ years after the individual had been randomly assigned. The measured average differences between the two groups' outcomes over time (such as their differences in rates of GED attainment, employment, or subsequent childbearing) and between the outcomes for their children are the observed results (or impacts) of New Chance. This, the final report on the New Chance program and its impacts, examines the trajectories of 2,079 young mothers who responded to the 3½-year survey.  (author introduction)

  • Individual Author: Administration for Children and Families
    Reference Type: Stakeholder Resource
    Year: 1998

    The first meeting of grantees for the Administration for Children and Families (ACF) Rural Welfare to Work Strategies project was held December 3-4, 1998, at the Hyatt Capitol Hill, Washington, DC. Representatives from the following States attended: Illinois, Iowa, Louisiana, Maryland, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, New York, Vermont and Washington.

    Helen Howerton, Chief, Division of Child and Family Development, Office of Planning, Research, and Evaluation (OPRE), ACF, welcomed grantees, provided an overview of the meeting, and presented an overview of ACF’s research agenda under welfare reform.

    Jim Dolson is the Project Officer for each of the grants and has most likely already been in touch with all of the grantees. (author abstract)

    The first meeting of grantees for the Administration for Children and Families (ACF) Rural Welfare to Work Strategies project was held December 3-4, 1998, at the Hyatt Capitol Hill, Washington, DC. Representatives from the following States attended: Illinois, Iowa, Louisiana, Maryland, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, New York, Vermont and Washington.

    Helen Howerton, Chief, Division of Child and Family Development, Office of Planning, Research, and Evaluation (OPRE), ACF, welcomed grantees, provided an overview of the meeting, and presented an overview of ACF’s research agenda under welfare reform.

    Jim Dolson is the Project Officer for each of the grants and has most likely already been in touch with all of the grantees. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Acs, Gregory; Coe, Norma B.; Watson, Keith; Lerman, Robert I.
    Reference Type: Report, Stakeholder Resource
    Year: 1998

    The basic analysis describes how the income of a single parent with two children changes as she moves from not working to working at a part-time job at minimum wage, then to full-time work at minimum wage, and finally to a full-time job paying $9/hour. In calculating income, we consider the family's earnings, its Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) grant, the cash value of food stamps it receives, federal and state earned income tax credits, any other state tax credits, and all federal and state tax liabilities. In subsequent analyses, we consider the impact of other public assistance programs such as federal housing assistance, child care subsidies, and Medicaid on work incentives. We then explore how lifetime time limits may affect a family's work-welfare decisions. While we focus on the incentives of welfare recipients to go to work, we also examine how the differential treatment of participants and applicants in benefit determination may affect the decisions of low-income workers to leave work and go on welfare. (author abstract)

    The basic analysis describes how the income of a single parent with two children changes as she moves from not working to working at a part-time job at minimum wage, then to full-time work at minimum wage, and finally to a full-time job paying $9/hour. In calculating income, we consider the family's earnings, its Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) grant, the cash value of food stamps it receives, federal and state earned income tax credits, any other state tax credits, and all federal and state tax liabilities. In subsequent analyses, we consider the impact of other public assistance programs such as federal housing assistance, child care subsidies, and Medicaid on work incentives. We then explore how lifetime time limits may affect a family's work-welfare decisions. While we focus on the incentives of welfare recipients to go to work, we also examine how the differential treatment of participants and applicants in benefit determination may affect the decisions of low-income workers to leave work and go on welfare. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Riccio, James A.
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 1999

    The Jobs-Plus Community Revitalization Initiative for Public Housing Families (Jobs-Plus, for short) grew out of The Rockefeller Foundation's interest in sponsoring community-building initiatives that feature employment as both the central goal and the driving force for transforming poor neighborhoods. The U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development joined The Rockefeller Foundation in its efforts, and MDRC agreed to manage Jobs-Plus and conduct a comprehensive evaluation of its implementation, costs, and effectiveness. The first in a series of documents that detail that evaluation, this report describes the main components of the program and outlines operations at the eight housing developments (in seven cities) that were selected as sites in March 1997. It also explores key aspects of Jobs-Plus, including the formation of agency and community organization partnerships around an employment agenda and the feasibility of providing services, incentives, and supports for work at saturation levels within a community. (author abstract)

    The Jobs-Plus Community Revitalization Initiative for Public Housing Families (Jobs-Plus, for short) grew out of The Rockefeller Foundation's interest in sponsoring community-building initiatives that feature employment as both the central goal and the driving force for transforming poor neighborhoods. The U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development joined The Rockefeller Foundation in its efforts, and MDRC agreed to manage Jobs-Plus and conduct a comprehensive evaluation of its implementation, costs, and effectiveness. The first in a series of documents that detail that evaluation, this report describes the main components of the program and outlines operations at the eight housing developments (in seven cities) that were selected as sites in March 1997. It also explores key aspects of Jobs-Plus, including the formation of agency and community organization partnerships around an employment agenda and the feasibility of providing services, incentives, and supports for work at saturation levels within a community. (author abstract)

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