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The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

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The SSRC Library includes resources which may be available only via journal subscription. The SSRC may be able to provide users without subscription access to a particular journal with a single use copy of the full text.  Please email the SSRC with your request.

The SSRC Library collection is constantly growing and new research is added regularly. We welcome our users to submit a library item to help us grow our collection in response to your needs.


  • Individual Author: U.S. Congress
    Reference Type: Statute
    Year: 1935

    This statute established the U.S. Social Security system.  It provided benefits to the disabled and unemployed and included titles relating to social supports for the elderly, the blind, women and children, as well as established the Aid to Families with Dependent Children program. 

    This statute established the U.S. Social Security system.  It provided benefits to the disabled and unemployed and included titles relating to social supports for the elderly, the blind, women and children, as well as established the Aid to Families with Dependent Children program. 

  • Individual Author: Montgomery, Debbie; Splett, Patricia
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 1997

    To determine whether breast-feeding of infants enrolled in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) is associated with a reduction in Medicaid expenditures during the first 6 months of life; if so, to determine whether the reduction in Medicaid expenditures represents a positive economic benefit to society when WIC costs for these infants and their mothers are considered. Cohorts of exclusively breast-fed and formula-fed infants were tracked for 6 months to compare WIC costs and Medicaid expenditures. The sample consisted of 406 healthy infants who were breast-fed exclusively for at least 3 months and 470 healthy infants who were formula-fed exclusively. The infants, born between August 1, 1993, and December 31, 1993, were enrolled in WIC and Medicaid. Compared with formula-feeding, breast-feeding each infant enrolled in WIC saved $478 in WIC costs and Medicaid expenditures during the first 6 months of the infant's life, or $161 after consideration of the formula manufacturer's rebate. A Medicaid cost saving of $112 per infant was realized...

    To determine whether breast-feeding of infants enrolled in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) is associated with a reduction in Medicaid expenditures during the first 6 months of life; if so, to determine whether the reduction in Medicaid expenditures represents a positive economic benefit to society when WIC costs for these infants and their mothers are considered. Cohorts of exclusively breast-fed and formula-fed infants were tracked for 6 months to compare WIC costs and Medicaid expenditures. The sample consisted of 406 healthy infants who were breast-fed exclusively for at least 3 months and 470 healthy infants who were formula-fed exclusively. The infants, born between August 1, 1993, and December 31, 1993, were enrolled in WIC and Medicaid. Compared with formula-feeding, breast-feeding each infant enrolled in WIC saved $478 in WIC costs and Medicaid expenditures during the first 6 months of the infant's life, or $161 after consideration of the formula manufacturer's rebate. A Medicaid cost saving of $112 per infant was realized by the breast-feeding cohort, and Medicaid pharmacy reimbursement costs for breast-fed infants were significantly lower, half that of formula-fed infants. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: U.S. Congress
    Reference Type: Statute
    Year: 2000

    This statute established guidelines for Indian tribes to administer federal programs themselves. It enabled tribes to customize programs in nutrition, job training, and health to better fit their needs, and increased the jurisdiction of the tribes.

    Public Law No. 106-260 (2000).

    This statute established guidelines for Indian tribes to administer federal programs themselves. It enabled tribes to customize programs in nutrition, job training, and health to better fit their needs, and increased the jurisdiction of the tribes.

    Public Law No. 106-260 (2000).

  • Individual Author: Alaimo, Katherine; Olson, Christine M.; Frongillo Jr., Edward A.; Briefel, Ronette R.
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2001

    Objectives. This study investigated associations between family income, food insufficiency, and health among US preschool and school-aged children.

    Methods. Data from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were analyzed. Children were classified as food insufficient if the family respondent reported that the family sometimes or often did not get enough food to eat. Regression analyses were conducted with health measures as the outcome variables. Prevalence rates of health variables were compared by family income category, with control for age and gender. Odds ratios for food insufficiency were calculated with control for family income and other potential confounding factors.

    Results. Low-income children had a higher prevalence of poor/fair health status and iron deficiency than high income children. After confounding factors, including poverty status, had been controlled, food-insufficient children were significantly more likely to have poorer health status and to experience more frequent stomachaches and headaches than food-sufficient children;...

    Objectives. This study investigated associations between family income, food insufficiency, and health among US preschool and school-aged children.

    Methods. Data from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were analyzed. Children were classified as food insufficient if the family respondent reported that the family sometimes or often did not get enough food to eat. Regression analyses were conducted with health measures as the outcome variables. Prevalence rates of health variables were compared by family income category, with control for age and gender. Odds ratios for food insufficiency were calculated with control for family income and other potential confounding factors.

    Results. Low-income children had a higher prevalence of poor/fair health status and iron deficiency than high income children. After confounding factors, including poverty status, had been controlled, food-insufficient children were significantly more likely to have poorer health status and to experience more frequent stomachaches and headaches than food-sufficient children; preschool food-insufficient children had more frequent colds.

    Conclusions. Food insufficiency and low family income are health concerns for US preschool and school-aged children. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Greenstein, Robert; Guyer, Jocelyn
    Reference Type: Book Chapter/Book
    Year: 2001

    The principal goal of the welfare law was to move families from welfare to work and, in so doing, provide them a route out of poverty.  Studies of families that have left welfare show, however, that most earn wages that leave them below the poverty line and that these families usually lack access to employer-based health insurance.  The wages these families earn thus need to be supplemented with other supports to ease their poverty and ensure that they are better off working than receiving welfare.

    Along with the Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) and child care, food stamps and health insurance are the most significant such supports for low-income working families.  A broad bipartisan consensus has developed that health insurance and food assistance should  be available to such families.  As Ron Haskins notes in chapter 4, policymakers broadly concur that families should not be made worse off by losing health insurance and food assistance when they leave welfare for work and that families should not have to go on, or return to, welfare to obtain such assistance.  For example...

    The principal goal of the welfare law was to move families from welfare to work and, in so doing, provide them a route out of poverty.  Studies of families that have left welfare show, however, that most earn wages that leave them below the poverty line and that these families usually lack access to employer-based health insurance.  The wages these families earn thus need to be supplemented with other supports to ease their poverty and ensure that they are better off working than receiving welfare.

    Along with the Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) and child care, food stamps and health insurance are the most significant such supports for low-income working families.  A broad bipartisan consensus has developed that health insurance and food assistance should  be available to such families.  As Ron Haskins notes in chapter 4, policymakers broadly concur that families should not be made worse off by losing health insurance and food assistance when they leave welfare for work and that families should not have to go on, or return to, welfare to obtain such assistance.  For example, the welfare law delinked Medicaid eligibility from welfare receipt for families (it had already been delinked for most children) and accorded states new options to extend Medicaid broadly to low-income working families not on welfare.

    Both programs have had difficulty moving from being adjuncts to welfare in varying degrees to playing a larger role as work supports.  The proportions of poor families that are served in Medicaid and food stamps have declined since 1995.  Although eligibility for neither program is dependent upon welfare receipt, the dramatic declines in cash assistance rolls appear to have resulted in large numbers of eligible working families failing to receive Medicaid or food stamp assistance for which they qualify, including many families that have moved from welfare to work.  Medicaid and food stamps always reached a smaller proportion of eligible working families than of families on welfare.  Because of economic growth and welfare reform, this problem has grown in importance.  Looking first at Medicaid and then at food stamps, this chapter examines recent developments in these programs and considers policy changes that could enable them to improve service to low-income working families. (author abstract)

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