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The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

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  • Individual Author: Scholz, John Karl
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 1996

    The earned income tax credit (EITC) is or will soon be the largest cash or near-cash benefit provided to low-income households in the United States. The EITC is a credit on the federal income tax available to working poor families with children. In 1994 the credit equals 26.3% of earned income (wages, salaries, self-employment income, and farm income) for taxpayers with one child. Because benefits increase with earned income (up to a certain point), the EITC seems to encourage work and therefore is a popular antipoverty programme. (Author abstract)

    The earned income tax credit (EITC) is or will soon be the largest cash or near-cash benefit provided to low-income households in the United States. The EITC is a credit on the federal income tax available to working poor families with children. In 1994 the credit equals 26.3% of earned income (wages, salaries, self-employment income, and farm income) for taxpayers with one child. Because benefits increase with earned income (up to a certain point), the EITC seems to encourage work and therefore is a popular antipoverty programme. (Author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Hao, Lingxin
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 1996

    This study examines the relationship between family structure, private transfers, and the economic well-being of families with children under 18. We use family wealth as a measure of economic well-being to mitigate some of the criticisms of traditional measures based on income. We examine family structure beyond marital status to include remarriage, cohabitation, and the gender of single parenthood. We focus on financial transfers from both kin and nonkin. After analyzing the distribution of family wealth and transfers by family structure, we estimate the effects of family structure, transfers, and their interaction on family wealth. Drawing on data from the National Survey of Families and Households (1987-88), we find that (1) family net wealth and total private transfers vary with family structure along three lines, marriage-remarriage, marriage- cohabitation, and male-female single parenthood; (2) marriage is a wealth-enhancing institution; (3) private transfers promote family net wealth; and (4) marriage reinforces the promoting effect of...

    This study examines the relationship between family structure, private transfers, and the economic well-being of families with children under 18. We use family wealth as a measure of economic well-being to mitigate some of the criticisms of traditional measures based on income. We examine family structure beyond marital status to include remarriage, cohabitation, and the gender of single parenthood. We focus on financial transfers from both kin and nonkin. After analyzing the distribution of family wealth and transfers by family structure, we estimate the effects of family structure, transfers, and their interaction on family wealth. Drawing on data from the National Survey of Families and Households (1987-88), we find that (1) family net wealth and total private transfers vary with family structure along three lines, marriage-remarriage, marriage- cohabitation, and male-female single parenthood; (2) marriage is a wealth-enhancing institution; (3) private transfers promote family net wealth; and (4) marriage reinforces the promoting effect of private transfers on family wealth. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Eissa, Nada; Liebman, Jeffrey B.
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 1996

    This paper examines the impact of the Tax Reform Act of 1986 (TRA86), which included an expansion of the earned income tax credit, on the labor force participation and hours of work of single women with children. We identify the impact of TRA86 by comparing the change in labor supply of single women with children to the change for single women without children. We find that between 1984-1986 and 1988-1990, single women with children increased their relative labor force participation by up to 2.8 percentage points. We observe no change in the relative hours worked by single women with children who were already in the labor force. (author abstract)

    This paper examines the impact of the Tax Reform Act of 1986 (TRA86), which included an expansion of the earned income tax credit, on the labor force participation and hours of work of single women with children. We identify the impact of TRA86 by comparing the change in labor supply of single women with children to the change for single women without children. We find that between 1984-1986 and 1988-1990, single women with children increased their relative labor force participation by up to 2.8 percentage points. We observe no change in the relative hours worked by single women with children who were already in the labor force. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Raheim, Salome
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 1997

    Social policymakers have begun to explore self-employment development, also known as microenterprise, as a route off welfare. With passage of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996, it is important for social workers to understand the benefits and limitations of self-employment development so they can more effectively influence welfare reform in the states. This article examines the problems associated with pursuing self-employment as an option for achieving economic self-sufficiency and discusses the lessons learned from national studies of self-employment development programs. These studies suggest that self-employment can be an effective strategy for income generation and asset building for welfare recipients when the necessary supports are provided and policy barriers are removed. The potential impact of various approaches to welfare reform on self-employment is examined, and recommendations for increasing the viability of self-employment as a route out of poverty are discussed. (author abstract)

    Social policymakers have begun to explore self-employment development, also known as microenterprise, as a route off welfare. With passage of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996, it is important for social workers to understand the benefits and limitations of self-employment development so they can more effectively influence welfare reform in the states. This article examines the problems associated with pursuing self-employment as an option for achieving economic self-sufficiency and discusses the lessons learned from national studies of self-employment development programs. These studies suggest that self-employment can be an effective strategy for income generation and asset building for welfare recipients when the necessary supports are provided and policy barriers are removed. The potential impact of various approaches to welfare reform on self-employment is examined, and recommendations for increasing the viability of self-employment as a route out of poverty are discussed. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Ozawa, Martha N.
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 1997

    As the United States attempts to minimize public spending on social welfare programs and to shift the authority over many programs to the states, the federal government needs to establish a program of income security for children that is not tied to welfare. Such a program is in the national interest because the country will need a strong, competent workforce to deal with stiffer global economic competition and a greater financial obligation to support the elderly. This article discusses why income security for children cannot be provided by the current system of income transfers and advocates the establishment of a $1,000 refundable tax credit for all children and an expansion of the Earned Income Tax Credit. (author abstract)

    As the United States attempts to minimize public spending on social welfare programs and to shift the authority over many programs to the states, the federal government needs to establish a program of income security for children that is not tied to welfare. Such a program is in the national interest because the country will need a strong, competent workforce to deal with stiffer global economic competition and a greater financial obligation to support the elderly. This article discusses why income security for children cannot be provided by the current system of income transfers and advocates the establishment of a $1,000 refundable tax credit for all children and an expansion of the Earned Income Tax Credit. (author abstract)

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