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  • Individual Author: Love, John M.; Kisker, Ellen Eliason; Ross, Christine M.; Schochet, Peter Z.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Boller, Kimberly; Paulsell, Diane; Fuligni, Allison Sidle; Berlin, Lisa J.
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2001

    Early Head Start is a two-generation program that provides child and family development services to low-income pregnant women and families with infants and toddlers. It also blends these services with a focus on staff development and a commitment to community partnerships. Early Head Start began with 68 new programs in 1995 in response to the recommendations of the 1993 Advisory Committee on Head Start Quality and Expansion and the 1994 Advisory Committee on Services for Families with Infants and Toddlers. The program continued to build on its bipartisan mandate embodied in the 1994 Head Start reauthorizing legislation, with impetus added by the 1998 reauthorization. Today, almost 650 programs serve more than 55,000 low-income families with infants and toddlers. A rigorous national evaluation, including about 3,000 children and families across 17 sites, also began in 1995. This report, Building Their Futures, describes the interim impact findings emerging from the analysis of child and family outcomes through the first two years of the children’s lives.

    The national...

    Early Head Start is a two-generation program that provides child and family development services to low-income pregnant women and families with infants and toddlers. It also blends these services with a focus on staff development and a commitment to community partnerships. Early Head Start began with 68 new programs in 1995 in response to the recommendations of the 1993 Advisory Committee on Head Start Quality and Expansion and the 1994 Advisory Committee on Services for Families with Infants and Toddlers. The program continued to build on its bipartisan mandate embodied in the 1994 Head Start reauthorizing legislation, with impetus added by the 1998 reauthorization. Today, almost 650 programs serve more than 55,000 low-income families with infants and toddlers. A rigorous national evaluation, including about 3,000 children and families across 17 sites, also began in 1995. This report, Building Their Futures, describes the interim impact findings emerging from the analysis of child and family outcomes through the first two years of the children’s lives.

    The national evaluation, conducted by Mathematica Policy Research, Inc., and Columbia University’s Center for Children and Families at Teachers College, in collaboration with the Early Head Start Research Consortium, finds that a year or more after program enrollment, when compared with a randomly assigned control group, 2-year-old Early Head Start children performed significantly better on a range of measures of cognitive, language, and social-emotional development. Their parents scored significantly higher than control group parents on many aspects of the home environment, parenting behavior, and knowledge of infant-toddler development. Early Head Start families were more likely to attend school or job training and experienced reductions in parenting stress and family conflict. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Early Head Start Research and Evaluation Project (EHSRE)
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2001

    Growing out of the recommendations of the 1993 Advisory Committee on Head Start Quality and Expansion and the 1994 Advisory Committee on services for Families with Infants and Toddlers, and building on the bipartisan mandate embodied in the 1994 Head Start reauthorizing legislation, Early Head Start began with 68 new programs in 1995. Today, with impetus added by the 1998 reauthorization, more than 600 programs serve some 45,000 low-income families with infants and toddlers. This two-generation program provides high-quality child and family development services, a focus on staff development, and a commitment to community partnerships. A rigorous national evaluation, including about 3,000 children and families in 17 sites, also began in 1995. This summary report highlights the first main impact findings emerging from the analysis of child and family outcomes through the first two years of the children’s lives.

    The national evaluation, conducted by Mathematica Policy Research, Inc., of Princeton, New Jersey, and Columbia University’s Center for Children and Families at...

    Growing out of the recommendations of the 1993 Advisory Committee on Head Start Quality and Expansion and the 1994 Advisory Committee on services for Families with Infants and Toddlers, and building on the bipartisan mandate embodied in the 1994 Head Start reauthorizing legislation, Early Head Start began with 68 new programs in 1995. Today, with impetus added by the 1998 reauthorization, more than 600 programs serve some 45,000 low-income families with infants and toddlers. This two-generation program provides high-quality child and family development services, a focus on staff development, and a commitment to community partnerships. A rigorous national evaluation, including about 3,000 children and families in 17 sites, also began in 1995. This summary report highlights the first main impact findings emerging from the analysis of child and family outcomes through the first two years of the children’s lives.

    The national evaluation, conducted by Mathematica Policy Research, Inc., of Princeton, New Jersey, and Columbia University’s Center for Children and Families at Teachers College, in collaboration with the Early Head Start Research Consortium, finds that after a year or more of program services, when compared with a randomly assigned control group, 2-year-old Early Head Start children performed significantly better on a range of measures of cognitive, language, and social-emotional development. Their parents scored significantly higher than control group parents on many of the measures of the home environment, parenting behavior, and knowledge of infant-toddler development. Early Head Start families were more likely to attend school or job training and experienced reductions in parenting stress and family conflict. Although these impacts are generally modest in size, the pattern of positive findings across a wide range of key domains important for children’s well-being and future development is promising. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Caputo, Richard K.
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2001

    Economic mobility in a youth cohort (n = 1956) was examined between 1979 and 1997. Increasing percentages of youth were found to reside in families with no change in economic status stratified by class. The rate of economic stasis of youth living in affluent families was more than twice that of those in middle-income families and more than four times that of those in poor families. Little variation in economic mobility was found among affluent families stratified by sex and ethnicity/race, although white males had less downward mobility than black females. Greater variation in economic mobility was found among poor families, with white males having greater upward mobility than other males and white females having greater upward mobility than black females and males. Finally, education was positively related to economic mobility for most sub-groups, as was receipt of SSI, while receipt of AFDC/TANF decreased economic mobility only among white males. (Author abstract)

    Economic mobility in a youth cohort (n = 1956) was examined between 1979 and 1997. Increasing percentages of youth were found to reside in families with no change in economic status stratified by class. The rate of economic stasis of youth living in affluent families was more than twice that of those in middle-income families and more than four times that of those in poor families. Little variation in economic mobility was found among affluent families stratified by sex and ethnicity/race, although white males had less downward mobility than black females. Greater variation in economic mobility was found among poor families, with white males having greater upward mobility than other males and white females having greater upward mobility than black females and males. Finally, education was positively related to economic mobility for most sub-groups, as was receipt of SSI, while receipt of AFDC/TANF decreased economic mobility only among white males. (Author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Love, John M.; Kisker, Ellen Eliason; Ross, Christine M.; Schochet, Peter Z.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Paulsell, Diane; Boller, Kimberly; Vogel, Cheri; Fuligni, Allison Sidle; Brady-Smith, Christy
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2002

    Following the recommendations of the Secretary’s Advisory Committee on Services for Families with Infants and Toddlers in 1994, the Administration on Children, Youth and Families (ACYF) designed Early Head Start as a two-generation program to enhance children’s development and health, strengthen family and community partnerships, and support the staff delivering new services to low-income families with pregnant women, infants, or toddlers. In 1995 and 1996, ACYF funded the first 143 programs, revised the Head Start Program Performance Standards to bring Early Head Start under the Head Start umbrella, created an ongoing national system of training and technical assistance (provided by the Early Head Start National Resource Center in coordination with ACYF’s regional offices and training centers), and began conducting regular program monitoring to ensure compliance with the performance standards. Today, the program operates in 664 communities and serves some 55,000 children.

    At the same time, ACYF selected 17 programs from across the country to participate in a rigorous,...

    Following the recommendations of the Secretary’s Advisory Committee on Services for Families with Infants and Toddlers in 1994, the Administration on Children, Youth and Families (ACYF) designed Early Head Start as a two-generation program to enhance children’s development and health, strengthen family and community partnerships, and support the staff delivering new services to low-income families with pregnant women, infants, or toddlers. In 1995 and 1996, ACYF funded the first 143 programs, revised the Head Start Program Performance Standards to bring Early Head Start under the Head Start umbrella, created an ongoing national system of training and technical assistance (provided by the Early Head Start National Resource Center in coordination with ACYF’s regional offices and training centers), and began conducting regular program monitoring to ensure compliance with the performance standards. Today, the program operates in 664 communities and serves some 55,000 children.

    At the same time, ACYF selected 17 programs from across the country to participate in a rigorous, large-scale, random-assignment evaluation.  The Early Head Start evaluation was designed to carry out the recommendation of the Advisory Committee on Services for Families with Infants and Toddlers for a strong research and evaluation component to support continuous improvement within the Early Head Start program and to meet the requirement in the 1994 and 1998 reauthorizations for a national evaluation of the new infant-toddler program. The research programs include all the major program approaches and are located in all regions of the country and in urban and rural settings. The families they serve are highly diverse. Their purposeful selection resulted in a research sample (17 programs and 3,001 families) that reflects the characteristics of all programs funded in 1995 and 1996, including their program approaches and family demographic characteristics. (author abstract)

    An executive summary is also available separately.

  • Individual Author: Berlin, Gordon
    Year: 2007

    I will make four points:

    - After declining by half between 1959 and 1972, the poverty rate in the United States has remained stuck between 11 and 15 percent ever since. Why? The prime explanations are rising rates of single parenthood and falling real wages, particularly among men with low levels of education. Of the two, the decline in wages is the more instrumental — that is, falling earnings is a problem we can redress and we have good evidence about what works.

    - A compelling body of evidence points to effective solutions — both short term and long term — for alleviating poverty related to low earnings today and the intergenerational transfer of poverty tomorrow. In the short term, enhancing the Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC), especially for single individuals, and indexing the minimum wage to inflation could be an effective strategy for boosting employment and earnings and reducing poverty. In the long term, investments in educational reform — from pre-kindergarten classes to community colleges — should equip the next generation with the skills they need to...

    I will make four points:

    - After declining by half between 1959 and 1972, the poverty rate in the United States has remained stuck between 11 and 15 percent ever since. Why? The prime explanations are rising rates of single parenthood and falling real wages, particularly among men with low levels of education. Of the two, the decline in wages is the more instrumental — that is, falling earnings is a problem we can redress and we have good evidence about what works.

    - A compelling body of evidence points to effective solutions — both short term and long term — for alleviating poverty related to low earnings today and the intergenerational transfer of poverty tomorrow. In the short term, enhancing the Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC), especially for single individuals, and indexing the minimum wage to inflation could be an effective strategy for boosting employment and earnings and reducing poverty. In the long term, investments in educational reform — from pre-kindergarten classes to community colleges — should equip the next generation with the skills they need to obtain high-paying jobs.

    - These short- and long-term two-generation strategies are interdependent: Providing enhanced work supports to adults to move families out of poverty today has positive effects on young children’s school performance — and provides a strong foundation for long-term efforts to prevent poverty tomorrow through improved educational opportunities for poor children.

    - An aggressive strategy to address falling wages would redesign and expand the EITC benefit for individuals, regardless of their parenting or marital status, conditioned on working 30 hours a week and determined on the basis of individual income rather than joint income. Retaining the current EITC for families with children while creating a new EITC for single individuals (including noncustodial parents and second earners in two-parent households) could have wide-ranging positive effects on employment, earnings, income, and poverty — as well as on family well-being. But because the costs of such an initiative would be high, a prudent first step would be a demonstration project with a rigorous research design in three or four cities to determine if the plan’s benefits outweigh its costs.  (author abstract)

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