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The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

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  • Individual Author: U.S. Congress
    Reference Type: Statute
    Year: 1972

    This statute amended the Child Nutrition Act of 1966 and the National School Lunch Act of 1946 and created the Special Supplemental Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) as a pilot program.

    Public Law 92-433 (1972).

    This statute amended the Child Nutrition Act of 1966 and the National School Lunch Act of 1946 and created the Special Supplemental Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) as a pilot program.

    Public Law 92-433 (1972).

  • Individual Author: U.S. Congress
    Reference Type: Statute
    Year: 1975

    This statute amended the National School Lunch and Child Nutrition Acts. Most notably, it took pilot programs for the School Breakfast Program and the Special Supplemental Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) and made them permanent. It also extended those programs to cover people who had not been previously eligible.

    Public Law No. 94-105 (1975).

    This statute amended the National School Lunch and Child Nutrition Acts. Most notably, it took pilot programs for the School Breakfast Program and the Special Supplemental Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) and made them permanent. It also extended those programs to cover people who had not been previously eligible.

    Public Law No. 94-105 (1975).

  • Individual Author: Montgomery, Debbie; Splett, Patricia
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 1997

    To determine whether breast-feeding of infants enrolled in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) is associated with a reduction in Medicaid expenditures during the first 6 months of life; if so, to determine whether the reduction in Medicaid expenditures represents a positive economic benefit to society when WIC costs for these infants and their mothers are considered. Cohorts of exclusively breast-fed and formula-fed infants were tracked for 6 months to compare WIC costs and Medicaid expenditures. The sample consisted of 406 healthy infants who were breast-fed exclusively for at least 3 months and 470 healthy infants who were formula-fed exclusively. The infants, born between August 1, 1993, and December 31, 1993, were enrolled in WIC and Medicaid. Compared with formula-feeding, breast-feeding each infant enrolled in WIC saved $478 in WIC costs and Medicaid expenditures during the first 6 months of the infant's life, or $161 after consideration of the formula manufacturer's rebate. A Medicaid cost saving of $112 per infant was realized...

    To determine whether breast-feeding of infants enrolled in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) is associated with a reduction in Medicaid expenditures during the first 6 months of life; if so, to determine whether the reduction in Medicaid expenditures represents a positive economic benefit to society when WIC costs for these infants and their mothers are considered. Cohorts of exclusively breast-fed and formula-fed infants were tracked for 6 months to compare WIC costs and Medicaid expenditures. The sample consisted of 406 healthy infants who were breast-fed exclusively for at least 3 months and 470 healthy infants who were formula-fed exclusively. The infants, born between August 1, 1993, and December 31, 1993, were enrolled in WIC and Medicaid. Compared with formula-feeding, breast-feeding each infant enrolled in WIC saved $478 in WIC costs and Medicaid expenditures during the first 6 months of the infant's life, or $161 after consideration of the formula manufacturer's rebate. A Medicaid cost saving of $112 per infant was realized by the breast-feeding cohort, and Medicaid pharmacy reimbursement costs for breast-fed infants were significantly lower, half that of formula-fed infants. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Cole, Nancy; Hoaglin, David; Kirlin, John
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2001

    The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) is administered by the Food and Nutrition Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). WIC was established in 1972 to counteract the negative effects of poverty and poor nutrition on prenatal and pediatric health. WIC provides a combination of direct nutritional supplementation, nutrition education and counseling, and increased access to health care and social service providers for pregnant, breastfeeding, and postpartum women; infants; and children up to age five. Since 1992, FNS has produced biennial reports on WIC participant and program characteristics based on the WIC Minimum Data Set (MDS) compiled from state management information systems. The 20 items included in the MDS are collected as part of ongoing WIC operations and consist primarily of information related to participant eligibility. This report presents findings from the National Survey of WIC Participants and Their Local Agencies (NSWP). The NSWP was fielded in spring of 1998 and collected information about WIC participants...

    The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) is administered by the Food and Nutrition Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). WIC was established in 1972 to counteract the negative effects of poverty and poor nutrition on prenatal and pediatric health. WIC provides a combination of direct nutritional supplementation, nutrition education and counseling, and increased access to health care and social service providers for pregnant, breastfeeding, and postpartum women; infants; and children up to age five. Since 1992, FNS has produced biennial reports on WIC participant and program characteristics based on the WIC Minimum Data Set (MDS) compiled from state management information systems. The 20 items included in the MDS are collected as part of ongoing WIC operations and consist primarily of information related to participant eligibility. This report presents findings from the National Survey of WIC Participants and Their Local Agencies (NSWP). The NSWP was fielded in spring of 1998 and collected information about WIC participants and their families, through interviews conducted in WIC service sites throughout the country. The NSWP was the first national survey of WIC enrollees since 1988. Over that ten-year period, the WIC program vastly expanded, with the number of enrollees growing from approximately 3.4 million in 1988 to over 8 million in 1998. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Kirlin, John A.; Cole, Nancy
    Year: 2001

    This report presents progress from the first year of a study to assess the effects of cost-containment practices by State agencies administering USDA's Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC). The WIC program augments the diets of eligible pregnant, breastfeeding, and postpartum women, infants, and children and is funded by cash grants to State WIC agencies from annual congressional appropriations. To serve as many eligible individuals as possible, State WIC agencies often implement practices designed to reduce food costs. These practices include limiting authorized food vendors to those stores with lower food prices; limiting food item selection according to brand, package size, form, or price; and negotiating rebates with food manufacturers or suppliers. There is concern these practices may have the inadvertent effect of countering the program's goal of supplementing diets with nutritious food. (author abstract)

    This report presents progress from the first year of a study to assess the effects of cost-containment practices by State agencies administering USDA's Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC). The WIC program augments the diets of eligible pregnant, breastfeeding, and postpartum women, infants, and children and is funded by cash grants to State WIC agencies from annual congressional appropriations. To serve as many eligible individuals as possible, State WIC agencies often implement practices designed to reduce food costs. These practices include limiting authorized food vendors to those stores with lower food prices; limiting food item selection according to brand, package size, form, or price; and negotiating rebates with food manufacturers or suppliers. There is concern these practices may have the inadvertent effect of countering the program's goal of supplementing diets with nutritious food. (author abstract)

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