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  • Individual Author: Blau, David
    Reference Type: Book Chapter/Book
    Year: 1991

    This volume presents results from state-of-the-art economic analyses of child care issues in a form accessible to the nonspecialist. The chapters have been written by economists who are engaged in path-breaking work on child care. The results of this research have to date typically been published in academic economics journals or in technical reports to sponsoring agencies. The authors of the chapters in this book have recognized the need to disseminate their findings to a wide audience and have consequently written papers that report their research results in a nontechnical way, but without sacrificing their key insights. The goal of the volume is to bring basic principles and findings of the economic analysis of child care into wide currency among groups and individuals with a strong interest in and knowledge of child care issues but without the expertise to conduct or evaluate sophisticated economic research. Economists with an interest in child care should also find the volume useful. (author abstract)

    Table of Contents

    Introduction - David Blau...

    This volume presents results from state-of-the-art economic analyses of child care issues in a form accessible to the nonspecialist. The chapters have been written by economists who are engaged in path-breaking work on child care. The results of this research have to date typically been published in academic economics journals or in technical reports to sponsoring agencies. The authors of the chapters in this book have recognized the need to disseminate their findings to a wide audience and have consequently written papers that report their research results in a nontechnical way, but without sacrificing their key insights. The goal of the volume is to bring basic principles and findings of the economic analysis of child care into wide currency among groups and individuals with a strong interest in and knowledge of child care issues but without the expertise to conduct or evaluate sophisticated economic research. Economists with an interest in child care should also find the volume useful. (author abstract)

    Table of Contents

    Introduction - David Blau

    Chapter 2: Child Care Policy and Research: An Economist's Perspective - Phillip Robins and William Prosser

    Chapter 3: Public Policy and the Supply of Child Care Services - James Walker and Deborah Phillips

    Chapter 4: The Importance of Child Care Costs to Women's Decision Making - Rachel Connelly and Sandra Hofferth

    Chapter 5: Quality, Cost, and Parental Choice of Child Care - Ellen Eisker and Rebecca Maynard

    Chapter 6: The Quality of Child Care: An Economic Perspective - David Blau 

  • Individual Author: Altshuler, Rosanne; Schwartz, Amy E.
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 1996

    We evaluate the progressivity of the federal Child Care Tax Credit using the Ernst and Young/University of Michigan panel of tax return data. Incidence measures are calculated using both annual and “time exposure” income to measure ability to pay. Both indicate that the benefits of the credit are progressively distributed. Replacing annual with time-exposure income dramatically increases the proportion of the credit received by lower-income taxpayers and yields a more even distribution of benefits across middle- and upper-income taxpayers. Our results suggest that policymakers should use both income measures to evaluate the credit. (author abstract)

    We evaluate the progressivity of the federal Child Care Tax Credit using the Ernst and Young/University of Michigan panel of tax return data. Incidence measures are calculated using both annual and “time exposure” income to measure ability to pay. Both indicate that the benefits of the credit are progressively distributed. Replacing annual with time-exposure income dramatically increases the proportion of the credit received by lower-income taxpayers and yields a more even distribution of benefits across middle- and upper-income taxpayers. Our results suggest that policymakers should use both income measures to evaluate the credit. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Stoney, Louise; Greenberg, Mark H.
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 1996

    The United States does not have a single coordinated child care system. Instead, child care and early education involve a complex mix of private and public funding for an array of formal and informal, regulated and unregulated, primarily educational and primarily custodial care arrangements. Public funding may be federal, state, or local and may be in the form of tax relief, vouchers or reimbursements to families, contractual arrangements with providers, or direct provision of services. This article describes the principal sources of public and private funding for child care, highlights some of the key issues resulting from the current fragmented funding approach, and suggests some possible consequences if pending federal legislation restructuring several public funding programs is enacted. (Author introduction)

    The United States does not have a single coordinated child care system. Instead, child care and early education involve a complex mix of private and public funding for an array of formal and informal, regulated and unregulated, primarily educational and primarily custodial care arrangements. Public funding may be federal, state, or local and may be in the form of tax relief, vouchers or reimbursements to families, contractual arrangements with providers, or direct provision of services. This article describes the principal sources of public and private funding for child care, highlights some of the key issues resulting from the current fragmented funding approach, and suggests some possible consequences if pending federal legislation restructuring several public funding programs is enacted. (Author introduction)

  • Individual Author: Cohen, Abby J.
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 1996

    Over the past 60 years, the federal government has provided funding for child care and early education programs in fits and starts. Funding has fluctuated in amount and purpose, with the result that today's child care financing system is a confused collection of funding streams with no uniform goals, standards, or administrative structure. This article traces the history of federal funding for child care and early education programs in the United States and examines how the values of American society have shaped the federal funding of child care and early education services. (author abstract)

    Over the past 60 years, the federal government has provided funding for child care and early education programs in fits and starts. Funding has fluctuated in amount and purpose, with the result that today's child care financing system is a confused collection of funding streams with no uniform goals, standards, or administrative structure. This article traces the history of federal funding for child care and early education programs in the United States and examines how the values of American society have shaped the federal funding of child care and early education services. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Folk, Karen Fox
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 1996

    Child care subsidies are crucial to becoming and remaining employed, yet the minimum cost of child care is not very much less for low-income families than for all families. The Census Bureau reports 1993 data on the cost of the care of preschool children for families with employed mothers: those with incomes under $1,200 per month paid an average of $47 a week, whereas the average cost of preschool child care for all families with employed mothers was $60/week. Bear in mind that these are averages, including a large proportion of women who work part time. Costs will be higher for W-2 participants employed full time.

    How do families manage when child care costs are 25– 33 percent of income? They rely heavily on relative care; only 40 percent of low-income families make cash payments for child care. The pattern is similar for single mothers: 60 percent pay for child care, and 40 percent use unpaid care by relatives. (author introduction)

    Child care subsidies are crucial to becoming and remaining employed, yet the minimum cost of child care is not very much less for low-income families than for all families. The Census Bureau reports 1993 data on the cost of the care of preschool children for families with employed mothers: those with incomes under $1,200 per month paid an average of $47 a week, whereas the average cost of preschool child care for all families with employed mothers was $60/week. Bear in mind that these are averages, including a large proportion of women who work part time. Costs will be higher for W-2 participants employed full time.

    How do families manage when child care costs are 25– 33 percent of income? They rely heavily on relative care; only 40 percent of low-income families make cash payments for child care. The pattern is similar for single mothers: 60 percent pay for child care, and 40 percent use unpaid care by relatives. (author introduction)

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