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The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

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  • Individual Author: Morgenstern, Jon; Riordan, Annette; Dephilippis, Dominick; Irwin, Thomas W.; Blanchard, Kimberly A.; McCrady, Barbara S.; McVeigh, Katharine H.
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2001

    As welfare caseloads decline, states increasingly are faced with the challenge of addressing the needs of hard-to-serve families who experience a variety of barriers to employability. Substance abuse is one of the major problems affecting hard-to-serve families. Since welfare reform was adopted, estimates suggest that 15% to 35% of welfare recipients have a substance abuse problem. Although substance abuse among welfare recipients is thought to be a prevalent and serious problem, it is widely recognized that individuals with substance use disorders often fail to acknowledge that they have a problem or seek treatment. Therefore, developing effective screening, identification, and referral strategies are necessary components of any state plan to address substance abuse among welfare recipients. 
    
    The purpose of this report is to describe results of two approaches to screening for substance abuse among TANF recipients in New Jersey (NJ). Results of this report suggest that a generic approach to screening in welfare settings — one that relies primarily...

    As welfare caseloads decline, states increasingly are faced with the challenge of addressing the needs of hard-to-serve families who experience a variety of barriers to employability. Substance abuse is one of the major problems affecting hard-to-serve families. Since welfare reform was adopted, estimates suggest that 15% to 35% of welfare recipients have a substance abuse problem. Although substance abuse among welfare recipients is thought to be a prevalent and serious problem, it is widely recognized that individuals with substance use disorders often fail to acknowledge that they have a problem or seek treatment. Therefore, developing effective screening, identification, and referral strategies are necessary components of any state plan to address substance abuse among welfare recipients. 
    
    The purpose of this report is to describe results of two approaches to screening for substance abuse among TANF recipients in New Jersey (NJ). Results of this report suggest that a generic approach to screening in welfare settings — one that relies primarily on caseworkers administering paper and pencil measures as part of benefit eligibility determination — is useful, but that specialized screening programs can substantially increase case identification rates. This study employed a program evaluation rather than an experimental design. Specifically, the first approach was implemented and outcomes were monitored. Based on an evaluation of these findings, a second approach was designed and implemented in an attempt to boost case identification rates. The first approach was implemented statewide in NJ beginning in 1998. In this approach, welfare caseworkers administered a brief paper and pencil measure to screen for alcohol and other drug use problems to all individuals being interviewed for initial or redetermination of TANF benefits. Those screening positive were then referred to a specially trained addiction counselor for further assessment. This approach is similar to that used by most states (e.g., California, Kansas, New York) attempting to implement innovative programs to address substance abuse among welfare recipients. The key features of this typical approach are: front-line caseworkers conduct the screening, screening occurs for all recipients at the point of benefit determination, and there is a reliance on paper and pencil screening measures. We label this approach "generic screening." (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Morgenstern, Jon; Riordan, Annette; McCrady, Barbara S.; Blanchard, Kimberly; McVeigh, Katherine K.; Irwin, Thomas W.
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2001

    The purpose of this study was to learn more about the substance abuse problems and other barriers to employment of women on TANF who were identified as being dependent on alcohol or other drugs. The study examined the nature, severity, course, and treatment needs for substance abuse problems in this population. The study also assessed problems in seven other areas thought to be barriers to employment. Because most women on TANF experience some barriers to employment, the study compared women with a substance abuse problem to those without a problem. This comparison allowed us to study and determine whether substance-abusing women were more impaired than other women on welfare across important domains related to employment. Finally, the study examined the well-being of children based on mother's self-report. (author abstract)

    The purpose of this study was to learn more about the substance abuse problems and other barriers to employment of women on TANF who were identified as being dependent on alcohol or other drugs. The study examined the nature, severity, course, and treatment needs for substance abuse problems in this population. The study also assessed problems in seven other areas thought to be barriers to employment. Because most women on TANF experience some barriers to employment, the study compared women with a substance abuse problem to those without a problem. This comparison allowed us to study and determine whether substance-abusing women were more impaired than other women on welfare across important domains related to employment. Finally, the study examined the well-being of children based on mother's self-report. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Campbell, Frances A.; Ramey, Craig T.; Pungello, Elizabeth; Sparling, Joseph; Miller-Johnson, Shari
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2002

    The high-risk infants who initially enrolled in the Abecedarian Project, a longitudinal prospective study of the benefits of early childhood educational intervention within a child care setting, were followed up as young adults (age 21 years). One hundred-eleven infants were in the original sample; 104 took part in the follow up. Treatment was provided in 2 phases: during preschool and in the primary grades. Participants received either both phases, 1, but not both, or neither. Assignment to groups was random. Those in the preschool treatment group earned significantly higher scores on intellectual and academic measures as young adults, attained significantly more years of total education, were more likely to attend a 4-year college, and showed a reduction in teenaged pregnancy compared with preschool controls. Preschool treatment was associated with educationally meaningful effect sizes on reading and math skills that persisted into adulthood. School-age treatment served to maintain preschool benefits for reading, but by itself, the effects were generally weaker than those of...

    The high-risk infants who initially enrolled in the Abecedarian Project, a longitudinal prospective study of the benefits of early childhood educational intervention within a child care setting, were followed up as young adults (age 21 years). One hundred-eleven infants were in the original sample; 104 took part in the follow up. Treatment was provided in 2 phases: during preschool and in the primary grades. Participants received either both phases, 1, but not both, or neither. Assignment to groups was random. Those in the preschool treatment group earned significantly higher scores on intellectual and academic measures as young adults, attained significantly more years of total education, were more likely to attend a 4-year college, and showed a reduction in teenaged pregnancy compared with preschool controls. Preschool treatment was associated with educationally meaningful effect sizes on reading and math skills that persisted into adulthood. School-age treatment served to maintain preschool benefits for reading, but by itself, the effects were generally weaker than those of the preschool program. Statistically significant differences in the attainment of full economic independence were not found at this stage, but would not be expected among young adults still attending school. The incidence of self-reported violence and lawbreaking was not significantly reduced, although trends in the data favored the treated group. The reported incidence of marijuana use was significantly less among treated individuals. The positive findings with respect to academic skills and increased years of post-secondary education support policies favoring early childhood programs for poor children. (Author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Morgenstern, Jon; McCrady, Barbara S.; Blanchard, Kimberly A.; McVeigh, Katharine H.; Riordan, Annette; Irwin, Thomas W.
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2003

    This study examined barriers to employability among women meeting criteria for a substance dependence disorder who were identified by routine screening conducted in welfare offices. The characteristics of these women were compared to other women on welfare who did not have a substance use disorder. A sample of 214 substance dependent women on federal welfare were recruited to participate in a substance use disorders welfare demonstration project. An additional 69 non-substance-affected women on welfare served as a comparison sample. All participants were assessed in welfare settings through a standardized battery of measures. Substance dependent women reported moderate to severe substance use problems. They also reported significantly higher rates than the women with no substance use disorder of other barriers such as domestic violence, mental health problems, legal problems, child welfare investigations and fewer job skills. Findings raise questions about the likely effectiveness of existing welfare reform services in addressing the needs of substance dependent women. (author...

    This study examined barriers to employability among women meeting criteria for a substance dependence disorder who were identified by routine screening conducted in welfare offices. The characteristics of these women were compared to other women on welfare who did not have a substance use disorder. A sample of 214 substance dependent women on federal welfare were recruited to participate in a substance use disorders welfare demonstration project. An additional 69 non-substance-affected women on welfare served as a comparison sample. All participants were assessed in welfare settings through a standardized battery of measures. Substance dependent women reported moderate to severe substance use problems. They also reported significantly higher rates than the women with no substance use disorder of other barriers such as domestic violence, mental health problems, legal problems, child welfare investigations and fewer job skills. Findings raise questions about the likely effectiveness of existing welfare reform services in addressing the needs of substance dependent women. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Clarke, Jennifer G.; Hebert, Megan R. ; Rosengard, Cynthia; Rose, Jennifer S. ; DaSilva, Kristen M. ; Stein, Michael D.
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2006

    Objectives. Women in correctional institutions have substantial reproductive health problems, yet they are underserved in receipt of reproductive health care. We assessed the level of risk for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and the reproductive health needs of 484 incarcerated women in Rhode Island to plan an intervention for women returning to the community. Methods. We used a 45-minute survey to assess medical histories, pregnancy and birth control use histories, current pregnancy intentions, substance use during the past 3 months, histories of childhood sexual abuse, and health attitudes and behaviors. Results. Participants had extremely high risks for STDs and pregnancy, which was characterized by inconsistent birth control (66.5%) and condom use (80.4%), multiple partners (38%), and a high prevalence of unplanned pregnancies (83.6%) and STDs (49%). Only 15.4% said it was not likely that they would have sexual relations with a man within 6 months after release. Conclusion. Reproductive health services must be offered to incarcerated...

    Objectives. Women in correctional institutions have substantial reproductive health problems, yet they are underserved in receipt of reproductive health care. We assessed the level of risk for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and the reproductive health needs of 484 incarcerated women in Rhode Island to plan an intervention for women returning to the community. Methods. We used a 45-minute survey to assess medical histories, pregnancy and birth control use histories, current pregnancy intentions, substance use during the past 3 months, histories of childhood sexual abuse, and health attitudes and behaviors. Results. Participants had extremely high risks for STDs and pregnancy, which was characterized by inconsistent birth control (66.5%) and condom use (80.4%), multiple partners (38%), and a high prevalence of unplanned pregnancies (83.6%) and STDs (49%). Only 15.4% said it was not likely that they would have sexual relations with a man within 6 months after release. Conclusion. Reproductive health services must be offered to incarcerated women. Such interventions will benefit the women, the criminal justice systems, and the communities to which the women will return. (Author abstract)

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