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The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

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  • Individual Author: Hollenbeck, Kevin
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 1996

    Many individuals are grappling with the issue of whether to provide workers with training that upgrades the workers' basic academic skills. The corollary questions that flow from this issue are how to provide the training, how much training should be provided, and who should pay for the training. Workers are interested in this issue because they want to sustain productive, well-paying careers that will support adequate standards of living. Not receiving training may jeopardize their careers and earning power. Employers are interested in this issue because their economic role is to maximize corporate profits for stockholders. In most companies, worker productivity is the most important factor in determining output levels and profitability. Public policy makers are interested in the issue because if productive workers lose their jobs, the public may end up supporting them through income maintenance payments and financing job searches through the employment service. On the other hand, if basic skills-deficient workers get training and keep their jobs, they will continue to pay taxes...

    Many individuals are grappling with the issue of whether to provide workers with training that upgrades the workers' basic academic skills. The corollary questions that flow from this issue are how to provide the training, how much training should be provided, and who should pay for the training. Workers are interested in this issue because they want to sustain productive, well-paying careers that will support adequate standards of living. Not receiving training may jeopardize their careers and earning power. Employers are interested in this issue because their economic role is to maximize corporate profits for stockholders. In most companies, worker productivity is the most important factor in determining output levels and profitability. Public policy makers are interested in the issue because if productive workers lose their jobs, the public may end up supporting them through income maintenance payments and financing job searches through the employment service. On the other hand, if basic skills-deficient workers get training and keep their jobs, they will continue to pay taxes that support government activities. Educators are interested in the issue because they want to improve the educational system to reduce future basic skill deficiencies and because they may be involved in the upgrading of current workers. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Montgomery, Debbie; Splett, Patricia
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 1997

    To determine whether breast-feeding of infants enrolled in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) is associated with a reduction in Medicaid expenditures during the first 6 months of life; if so, to determine whether the reduction in Medicaid expenditures represents a positive economic benefit to society when WIC costs for these infants and their mothers are considered. Cohorts of exclusively breast-fed and formula-fed infants were tracked for 6 months to compare WIC costs and Medicaid expenditures. The sample consisted of 406 healthy infants who were breast-fed exclusively for at least 3 months and 470 healthy infants who were formula-fed exclusively. The infants, born between August 1, 1993, and December 31, 1993, were enrolled in WIC and Medicaid. Compared with formula-feeding, breast-feeding each infant enrolled in WIC saved $478 in WIC costs and Medicaid expenditures during the first 6 months of the infant's life, or $161 after consideration of the formula manufacturer's rebate. A Medicaid cost saving of $112 per infant was realized...

    To determine whether breast-feeding of infants enrolled in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) is associated with a reduction in Medicaid expenditures during the first 6 months of life; if so, to determine whether the reduction in Medicaid expenditures represents a positive economic benefit to society when WIC costs for these infants and their mothers are considered. Cohorts of exclusively breast-fed and formula-fed infants were tracked for 6 months to compare WIC costs and Medicaid expenditures. The sample consisted of 406 healthy infants who were breast-fed exclusively for at least 3 months and 470 healthy infants who were formula-fed exclusively. The infants, born between August 1, 1993, and December 31, 1993, were enrolled in WIC and Medicaid. Compared with formula-feeding, breast-feeding each infant enrolled in WIC saved $478 in WIC costs and Medicaid expenditures during the first 6 months of the infant's life, or $161 after consideration of the formula manufacturer's rebate. A Medicaid cost saving of $112 per infant was realized by the breast-feeding cohort, and Medicaid pharmacy reimbursement costs for breast-fed infants were significantly lower, half that of formula-fed infants. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Besharov, Douglas J.; Germanis, Peter
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 1998

    In this volume, Glenn Loury, a professor of economics and director of the Institute on Race and Social Division at Boston University, assesses the research evidence on the effectiveness of five projects that sought to reduce subsequent births to mothers on welfare. The first two involved family caps on welfare benefits: the Arkansas Welfare Waiver Demonstration Project and the New Jersey Family Development Program. The second two involved enhanced family-planning services as part of broader interventions for teen parents: the New Chance Demonstration and the Teenage Parent Demonstration. The last one involved "authoritative" or "directive" counseling within a nurse home-visitor program: the Prenatal and Early Childhood Nurse Home-Visitation Program. Loury also examines the Dollar-a-Day program, which involved positive financial incentives for young mothers who did not become pregnant....

    In addition to Loury's paper, this volume contains a detailed assessment of the New Jersey study by Peter Rossi, professor emeritus at the University of Massachusetts (Amherst); it also...

    In this volume, Glenn Loury, a professor of economics and director of the Institute on Race and Social Division at Boston University, assesses the research evidence on the effectiveness of five projects that sought to reduce subsequent births to mothers on welfare. The first two involved family caps on welfare benefits: the Arkansas Welfare Waiver Demonstration Project and the New Jersey Family Development Program. The second two involved enhanced family-planning services as part of broader interventions for teen parents: the New Chance Demonstration and the Teenage Parent Demonstration. The last one involved "authoritative" or "directive" counseling within a nurse home-visitor program: the Prenatal and Early Childhood Nurse Home-Visitation Program. Loury also examines the Dollar-a-Day program, which involved positive financial incentives for young mothers who did not become pregnant....

    In addition to Loury's paper, this volume contains a detailed assessment of the New Jersey study by Peter Rossi, professor emeritus at the University of Massachusetts (Amherst); it also offers three comments from people closely associated with that project and other analysts: Michael Camasso at the School of Social Work and Center for Urban Policy Research, Rutgers University (and his colleagues); Michael Laracy, a senior program associate at the Annie E. Casey Foundation; and David Murray, director of research at the Statistical Assessment Service. Some of their comments support Loury's and Rossi's assessments, and some do not. This volume also includes an analysis of the New Jersey study from the Congressional Research Service. All of these materials are appended to this report so that readers can make their own judgements.

    Finally, this volume contains a paper by Michael Wiseman that presents the California estimates described above. Wiseman uses a longitudinal database to estimate the number of subsequent births to California welfare mothers in 1995, including an estimate of those who would have been subject to the family cap had that policy been in effect at that time. He finds that a significant number of children would have been subject to the family cap had it been in effect in 1995, and he provides estimates for the rate at which the number of children affected grows over time. His estimates highlight the importance of the issue. (author introduction)

  • Individual Author: Michalopoulos, Charles; Robins, Philip K.; Card, David
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 1999

    This report examines SSP’s impacts on applicants’ employment, income, and use of income assistance during the first 30 months after random assignment (that is, 18 months after sample members could first receive supplement payments).(author abstract)

    This report examines SSP’s impacts on applicants’ employment, income, and use of income assistance during the first 30 months after random assignment (that is, 18 months after sample members could first receive supplement payments).(author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Schreiner, Mark; Sherraden, Michael; Clancy, Margaret; Johnson, Lissa; Curley, Jami; Grinstein-Weiss, Michal; Zhan, Min; Beverly, Sondra
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2001

    Long-term improvement in well-being requires asset accumulation.  While saving is not easy for anyone, it is more difficult for the poor because they have few resources relative to subsistence requirements, because they lack access to some public-policy mechanisms that subsidize saving, and because scarce resources and restricted access may push saving out of their world view. Individual Development Accounts (IDAs) are a new policy proposal designed to address these constraints and to improve access to savings institutions for the poor.  Withdrawals of deposits by the poor in IDAs are matched if used for home ownership, post-secondary education, or microenterprise.  Participants also receive financial education and support from IDA staff.

    Do IDAs work? Data from the American Dream Demonstration (ADD) suggests that the poor can save and accumulate assets in IDAs:

    • Average monthly net deposits per participant were $25.42.

    • The average participant saved 67 percent of the monthly savings target.

    • The average participant made a deposit in 7 of 12 months...

    Long-term improvement in well-being requires asset accumulation.  While saving is not easy for anyone, it is more difficult for the poor because they have few resources relative to subsistence requirements, because they lack access to some public-policy mechanisms that subsidize saving, and because scarce resources and restricted access may push saving out of their world view. Individual Development Accounts (IDAs) are a new policy proposal designed to address these constraints and to improve access to savings institutions for the poor.  Withdrawals of deposits by the poor in IDAs are matched if used for home ownership, post-secondary education, or microenterprise.  Participants also receive financial education and support from IDA staff.

    Do IDAs work? Data from the American Dream Demonstration (ADD) suggests that the poor can save and accumulate assets in IDAs:

    • Average monthly net deposits per participant were $25.42.

    • The average participant saved 67 percent of the monthly savings target.

    • The average participant made a deposit in 7 of 12 months.

    • With an average match rate of 2:1, participants accumulated about $900 per year in IDAs (author abstract)

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