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The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

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The SSRC Library includes resources which may be available only via journal subscription. The SSRC may be able to provide users without subscription access to a particular journal with a single use copy of the full text.  Please email the SSRC with your request.

The SSRC Library collection is constantly growing and new research is added regularly. We welcome our users to submit a library item to help us grow our collection in response to your needs.


  • Individual Author: Frye, Judith; Caspar, Emma
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 1997

    Wisconsin’s Learnfare program is intended to encourage enrollment, regular attendance, and high school graduation or the completion of high school equivalency programs among 13- to 19-year-old recipients of Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC). These teenagers, who can be either dependent children or parents, risk losing part or all of their families’ monthly AFDC grants if they do not maintain enrollment and acceptable school attendance. In addition, the program offers participating families assistance in identifying and correcting the causes of attendance problems, and services such as day care for the teenagers’ children, transportation, and referral to alternative education programs. The program was administered by the Department of Health and Social Services until July 1996, when that responsibility was transferred to the new Department of Workforce Development.

    This evaluation report describes the effects of Learnfare on the school participation and school completion of teenagers and on their families’ public assistance...

    Wisconsin’s Learnfare program is intended to encourage enrollment, regular attendance, and high school graduation or the completion of high school equivalency programs among 13- to 19-year-old recipients of Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC). These teenagers, who can be either dependent children or parents, risk losing part or all of their families’ monthly AFDC grants if they do not maintain enrollment and acceptable school attendance. In addition, the program offers participating families assistance in identifying and correcting the causes of attendance problems, and services such as day care for the teenagers’ children, transportation, and referral to alternative education programs. The program was administered by the Department of Health and Social Services until July 1996, when that responsibility was transferred to the new Department of Workforce Development.

    This evaluation report describes the effects of Learnfare on the school participation and school completion of teenagers and on their families’ public assistance payments. Because individuals entered the sample at different times, some were in the study for longer than others. All sample members were tracked for at least four semesters after introduction to Learnfare. Six semesters of data are reported for those who entered the sample earliest. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: U.S. Government Accountability Office (GAO)
    Year: 1999

    For at least 30 years, states’ welfare and workforce development systems have been collaborating at some level to provide employment and training services to welfare clients, but their efforts often focused more on skills training than on getting a job. Over time, federal welfare reform initiatives have given states greater flexibility to design and administer their welfare programs to serve their unique program needs, including greater flexibility in collaborating with workforce development systems. At the same time, the workforce development system has established a new service delivery mechanism, called the one-stop career center, which states have been implementing to deliver employment and training services to all clients. (author abstract)

    For at least 30 years, states’ welfare and workforce development systems have been collaborating at some level to provide employment and training services to welfare clients, but their efforts often focused more on skills training than on getting a job. Over time, federal welfare reform initiatives have given states greater flexibility to design and administer their welfare programs to serve their unique program needs, including greater flexibility in collaborating with workforce development systems. At the same time, the workforce development system has established a new service delivery mechanism, called the one-stop career center, which states have been implementing to deliver employment and training services to all clients. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Wisconsin Council on Children and Families
    Reference Type: Stakeholder Resource
    Year: 2000

    Long before welfare was considered something that needed reformation, before public assistance became a privilege rather than a right, and before it was assumed that almost anybody could get a job if you simply threatened to cut off their assistance, there were people who lacked job skills and there were programs designed to help them get those skills. Some people completed the programs, got jobs, and stayed off welfare. Others, many of whom had major employment barriers that kept them out of the workforce, including learning disabilities, mental health issues, drug or alcohol problems, no transportation, inadequate childcare, and children with special needs, did not. Still others were able to subsist on AFDC while they completed college or vocational programs. Because of parenting responsibilities and other obstacles, getting a degree or certificate sometimes took quite a while. Things have changed dramatically in the last few years. Welfare has become workfare, and is no longer an entitlement. Participants now face lifetime limits on how long they can receive assistance....

    Long before welfare was considered something that needed reformation, before public assistance became a privilege rather than a right, and before it was assumed that almost anybody could get a job if you simply threatened to cut off their assistance, there were people who lacked job skills and there were programs designed to help them get those skills. Some people completed the programs, got jobs, and stayed off welfare. Others, many of whom had major employment barriers that kept them out of the workforce, including learning disabilities, mental health issues, drug or alcohol problems, no transportation, inadequate childcare, and children with special needs, did not. Still others were able to subsist on AFDC while they completed college or vocational programs. Because of parenting responsibilities and other obstacles, getting a degree or certificate sometimes took quite a while. Things have changed dramatically in the last few years. Welfare has become workfare, and is no longer an entitlement. Participants now face lifetime limits on how long they can receive assistance. Education and training now take a distant back seat to “work first” approaches that emphasize job search and soft skills at the expense of substantial training opportunities that can lead to a family-sustaining career. The result has been a precipitous decline in welfare caseloads nationwide, with Wisconsin’s W-2 program leading the way. But while people are leaving welfare in unprecedented numbers, families continue to struggle; their incomes remain low and their prospects for true self-sufficiency remain remote. With the loss of entitlements have come highly discretionary programs in which eligible applicants may be denied help. The strong economy has enabled many former welfare recipients to get jobs, but without adequate skills and access to education and training, most of them have merely gone from being just plain poor to being “working and poor.” Current policy in Wisconsin makes the pursuit of a college or vocational degree impractical for the vast majority of W-2 participants and other low-income parents. This paper focuses on the importance of restoring their access to postsecondary education. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Gibson, Cynthia M.
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2000

    The Jobs Initiative, an eight-year demonstration, helps low-income residents find jobs that pay family-supporting wages in Denver, Milwaukee, New Orleans, Philadelphia, St. Louis, and Seattle. "Entrepreneurial intermediaries," ranging from a private foundation to a city agency, manage six sites that take a dramatically different, long-term approach emphasizing comprehensive strategies that fuel community-based work force development. They have a dual customer focus, meeting needs of supply (workers) and demand (employer) sides; identify and secure entry-level jobs offering low-income people livable wages, benefits, and opportunities for wage and career advancement; build on job-seekers' strengths and respect their talent, dignity, and self reliance, while providing support services; increase dialogue, communication, and understanding among stakeholders; provide community-based organizations with sustained support and technical assistance; stress outcomes-based management; and suggest and provoke broader systemic change leading to more effective jobs and work force development...

    The Jobs Initiative, an eight-year demonstration, helps low-income residents find jobs that pay family-supporting wages in Denver, Milwaukee, New Orleans, Philadelphia, St. Louis, and Seattle. "Entrepreneurial intermediaries," ranging from a private foundation to a city agency, manage six sites that take a dramatically different, long-term approach emphasizing comprehensive strategies that fuel community-based work force development. They have a dual customer focus, meeting needs of supply (workers) and demand (employer) sides; identify and secure entry-level jobs offering low-income people livable wages, benefits, and opportunities for wage and career advancement; build on job-seekers' strengths and respect their talent, dignity, and self reliance, while providing support services; increase dialogue, communication, and understanding among stakeholders; provide community-based organizations with sustained support and technical assistance; stress outcomes-based management; and suggest and provoke broader systemic change leading to more effective jobs and work force development programs and policies. Site results indicate that individuals placed in jobs had experienced significant hourly wage and earnings increases; more than twice as many had medical benefits; and more than half had been employed 12 months. Requirements for meeting workplace demands are employer engagement; employee retention and advancement; collaboration; and building organizational capacity. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Mueller, Elizabeth; Schwartz, Alex
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2002

    This report explores a few examples of workforce development strategies and systems reforms implemented as part of the Casey Foundation’s Jobs Initiative. Through case studies from Seattle to New Orleans, the report illustrates workforce programs, partnerships and policies that are working, and how to navigate some common challenges in pushing for reform. (Author abstract)

    This report explores a few examples of workforce development strategies and systems reforms implemented as part of the Casey Foundation’s Jobs Initiative. Through case studies from Seattle to New Orleans, the report illustrates workforce programs, partnerships and policies that are working, and how to navigate some common challenges in pushing for reform. (Author abstract)

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