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The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

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The SSRC Library includes resources which may be available only via journal subscription. The SSRC may be able to provide users without subscription access to a particular journal with a single use copy of the full text.  Please email the SSRC with your request.

The SSRC Library collection is constantly growing and new research is added regularly. We welcome our users to submit a library item to help us grow our collection in response to your needs.


  • Individual Author: Bartfeld, Judi
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2002

    This paper documents the characteristics, economic circumstances, and concurrent use of food stamps among single mothers using food pantries in Wisconsin in 1999. Single mothers who seek emergency food assistance have strong ties to the labor force, with almost half employed and most of the others having been employed during the past year. Most of these women use food pantries as an alternative, rather than a supplement, to food stamps, despite appearing to meet income criteria for food stamps. Concurrent food stamp use is more common among mothers with weaker employment ties, more recent welfare involvement, and greater levels of need. Single mothers who use food pantries and live in counties which have experienced large food stamp declines in the welfare reform years are less likely themselves to receive food stamps, despite high levels of need. (Author abstract)

    This paper documents the characteristics, economic circumstances, and concurrent use of food stamps among single mothers using food pantries in Wisconsin in 1999. Single mothers who seek emergency food assistance have strong ties to the labor force, with almost half employed and most of the others having been employed during the past year. Most of these women use food pantries as an alternative, rather than a supplement, to food stamps, despite appearing to meet income criteria for food stamps. Concurrent food stamp use is more common among mothers with weaker employment ties, more recent welfare involvement, and greater levels of need. Single mothers who use food pantries and live in counties which have experienced large food stamp declines in the welfare reform years are less likely themselves to receive food stamps, despite high levels of need. (Author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Courtney, Mark; Dworsky, Amy
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2006

    One way that researchers measure the economic well being of low-income families is to ask about material hardships they may have experienced. Have they been unable to pay rent or essential bills, doubled up or become homeless, had telephone service disconnected or utilities shutoff, or lacked adequate food? Previous studies have examined material hardships experienced by former welfare-recipient families. In some cases, researchers have compared material hardships experienced since leaving welfare to material hardships experienced while still receiving cash assistance. In other cases, researchers have used current welfare recipients as a comparison group. Still others have compared the material hardships experienced by families that left welfare for different reasons (e.g., employment versus sanctions versus time limits).

    Overall this research shows that at least a quarter of TANF leaver families experience food- and housing-related hardships at some point after exiting. Although some studies suggest that the likelihood of experiencing hardships is higher after families...

    One way that researchers measure the economic well being of low-income families is to ask about material hardships they may have experienced. Have they been unable to pay rent or essential bills, doubled up or become homeless, had telephone service disconnected or utilities shutoff, or lacked adequate food? Previous studies have examined material hardships experienced by former welfare-recipient families. In some cases, researchers have compared material hardships experienced since leaving welfare to material hardships experienced while still receiving cash assistance. In other cases, researchers have used current welfare recipients as a comparison group. Still others have compared the material hardships experienced by families that left welfare for different reasons (e.g., employment versus sanctions versus time limits).

    Overall this research shows that at least a quarter of TANF leaver families experience food- and housing-related hardships at some point after exiting. Although some studies suggest that the likelihood of experiencing hardships is higher after families leave the program, others suggest. Overall this research shows that at least a quarter of TANF leaver families experience food- and housing-related hardships at some point after exiting. Although some studies suggest that the likelihood of experiencing hardships is higher after families leave the program, others suggest

    Although these leaver studies have answered many questions about the material hardships that families making the transition from welfare to work experience, they are limited in two respects. First, because most of these studies only observed families for 6 to 24 months, they tell us nothing about the hardships that families experience over longer periods of time. Second, leaver studies tell us nothing about the hardships experienced by families that apply for assistance from their state TANF program and remain involved with the program.

    This paper examines the material hardships experienced by a sample of TANF applicants from Milwaukee County, Wisconsin (See box for a description of the study). We find that a troublingly high percentage of these TANF applicants had experienced one or more of the material hardships we asked them about, and that this continued to be the case over time. Our findings also suggest that applicants whose families experienced more material hardships were dealing with a range of psychosocial problems that can make it difficult to balance the sometimes competing demands of work and parenting. We close with a discussion of the policy implications of our findings. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Rowe, Gretchen; O'Brien, Carolyn T.; Hall, Sam; Pindus, Nancy M.; Eyster, Lauren; Koralek, Robin; Stanczyk, Alexandra
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2010

    The Urban Institute conducted a comprehensive study of state efforts to modernize the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP). Although modernization may be defined in many ways, this study adopted a broad definition of modernization described within four categories—policy changes, organizational changes, technological innovations, and partnering arrangements. The study included three data collection activities: initial site visits to four states; a national survey of all states, including a sample of local offices and partner organizations; and intensive case studies in 14 states. The states selected to participate in the case studies included Colorado, D.C., Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, Massachusetts, Mississippi, North Carolina, Pennsylvania, Texas, Utah, Washington, and Wisconsin. The main focus of this report is on findings from the intensive case studies conducted between February and June 2009. (author abstract)

    The Urban Institute conducted a comprehensive study of state efforts to modernize the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP). Although modernization may be defined in many ways, this study adopted a broad definition of modernization described within four categories—policy changes, organizational changes, technological innovations, and partnering arrangements. The study included three data collection activities: initial site visits to four states; a national survey of all states, including a sample of local offices and partner organizations; and intensive case studies in 14 states. The states selected to participate in the case studies included Colorado, D.C., Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, Massachusetts, Mississippi, North Carolina, Pennsylvania, Texas, Utah, Washington, and Wisconsin. The main focus of this report is on findings from the intensive case studies conducted between February and June 2009. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Kauff, Jacqueline; Dragoset, Lisa; Clary, Elizabeth; Laird, Elizabeth; Makowsky, Libby; Sama-Miller, Emily
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2014

    In 2009, Congress authorized and funded pilot projects to test approaches to facilitate access to SNAP among two underserved populations: the elderly and the working poor. The Michigan and Pennsylvania pilots successfully increased access to SNAP among the elderly. No significant impacts on access were found in the other four States. (author abstract) 

    In 2009, Congress authorized and funded pilot projects to test approaches to facilitate access to SNAP among two underserved populations: the elderly and the working poor. The Michigan and Pennsylvania pilots successfully increased access to SNAP among the elderly. No significant impacts on access were found in the other four States. (author abstract) 

  • Individual Author: Alford, Shana; Heflin, Colleen; Waxman, Elaine
    Reference Type: Conference Paper
    Year: 2014

    This presentation provides an overview of SNAP participation and describes Feeding America's multi-site case study of SNAP outreach and application assistance being conducted through network food banks. 

    This presentation was given at the 2014 National Association of Welfare Research and Statistics (NAWRS) Annual Workshop.

    This presentation provides an overview of SNAP participation and describes Feeding America's multi-site case study of SNAP outreach and application assistance being conducted through network food banks. 

    This presentation was given at the 2014 National Association of Welfare Research and Statistics (NAWRS) Annual Workshop.

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