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The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

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  • Individual Author: Martinson, Karin; Trutko, John; Strong, Debra
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2000

    The Welfare-to-Work (WtW) Grants Program, authorized by the Balanced Budget Act of 1997, provides federal funding to states and local organizations to help welfare recipients and other low-income parents move into employment, stay employed, and improve their economic situation. Low-income noncustodial parents (NCPs) (mainly fathers) of welfare children are among the main target groups for WtW services, along with custodial parents who are receiving cash assistance under the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) program and moving from welfare to work. This focus reflects policymakers' growing interest in strategies to increase the employment and earnings of noncustodial fathers and thereby improve their ability to provide financial support for their children and play an active role in their lives.

    WtW grants represent a new source of funding for local work-focused services to NCPs. This report describes 11 local programs funded by WtW grants, in terms of the types of organizations operating the programs, the range of services offered, and the interagency...

    The Welfare-to-Work (WtW) Grants Program, authorized by the Balanced Budget Act of 1997, provides federal funding to states and local organizations to help welfare recipients and other low-income parents move into employment, stay employed, and improve their economic situation. Low-income noncustodial parents (NCPs) (mainly fathers) of welfare children are among the main target groups for WtW services, along with custodial parents who are receiving cash assistance under the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) program and moving from welfare to work. This focus reflects policymakers' growing interest in strategies to increase the employment and earnings of noncustodial fathers and thereby improve their ability to provide financial support for their children and play an active role in their lives.

    WtW grants represent a new source of funding for local work-focused services to NCPs. This report describes 11 local programs funded by WtW grants, in terms of the types of organizations operating the programs, the range of services offered, and the interagency collaborations in effect. No single strategy or set of services predominates. Rather, local grant recipients have discretion in developing and implementing program models, within the parameters of the WtW regulations. Thus, the experiences of these programs illustrate a variety of strategies and approaches that are being implemented around the nation and highlight key issues that must be addressed to serve this population group. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Meyer, Daniel R.; Cancian, Maria
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2002

    The CSDE includes experimental and nonexperimental components. A previous report presented results
    from the experimental evaluation for the first cohort of cases. This three-volume report includes results
    from the nonexperimental analyses.
    • Volume I summarizes and compares the experimental evaluation and three quantitative
    nonexperimental studies.
    • Volume II reports on fathers of children in W-2 families, and features findings from an
    ethnographic study.
    • This volume includes the full quantitative nonexperimental studies summarized in Volume I.

    In 1996, the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA) eliminated the AFDC program and gave states considerable flexibility and responsibility in designing a replacement program, Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF). Under AFDC, states were required to pass through to the family the first $50 per month of child support collected, and to disregard this amount in calculating AFDC benefits. Under TANF, states could set their own policies for passing through...

    The CSDE includes experimental and nonexperimental components. A previous report presented results
    from the experimental evaluation for the first cohort of cases. This three-volume report includes results
    from the nonexperimental analyses.
    • Volume I summarizes and compares the experimental evaluation and three quantitative
    nonexperimental studies.
    • Volume II reports on fathers of children in W-2 families, and features findings from an
    ethnographic study.
    • This volume includes the full quantitative nonexperimental studies summarized in Volume I.

    In 1996, the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA) eliminated the AFDC program and gave states considerable flexibility and responsibility in designing a replacement program, Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF). Under AFDC, states were required to pass through to the family the first $50 per month of child support collected, and to disregard this amount in calculating AFDC benefits. Under TANF, states could set their own policies for passing through and disregarding any child support paid on behalf of children on cash assistance, and were required only to withhold the federal share of child support collected. Under the new rules, most states chose to pass no money collected to the resident parent. In 1997, Wisconsin received a waiver from federal rules allowing it to pass through the entire amount of support collected to the resident parent, and to disregard all child support in calculating TANF cash payments. One requirement of the waiver was to conduct an evaluation of this policy change, the Child Support Demonstration Evaluation (CSDE). A key component of the CSDE is a random-assignment experimental evaluation: although most parents in the state receive the full amount of child support paid on their behalf (the experimental group), a randomly selected group of parents (the control group) receives only a portion of what is paid.

    Currently most state evaluations of TANF-related policy changes are nonexperimental; it is therefore particularly important to reach a fuller understanding of the sensitivity of conclusions to the type of evaluation. This report contains three nonexperimental analyses that provide additional information on whether pass-through policy affects formal child support payments and orders and paternity establishment rates. The report also includes a comparison of these nonexperimental results with the CSDE experimental evaluation findings. (author abstract)

     

  • Individual Author: Mikelson, Kelly S.
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2002

    Since the passage of PRWORA, there have been numerous efforts to evaluate the effectiveness of TANF and related programs and subpopulations. Some of the many issues being studied and described in this annotated bibliography include:

    • - The well-being of former welfare recipients;
    • - Evaluating various Welfare-to-Work strategies;
    • - Employment retention and advancement initiatives;
    • - Rural welfare initiatives;
    • - Programs designed to serve noncustodial parents;
    • - Hard-to-serve welfare recipients and barriers to self-sufficiency;
    • - Changes in the welfare caseload; and
    • - Welfare time limits
    • - TANF reauthorization.

    (author abstract)

    Since the passage of PRWORA, there have been numerous efforts to evaluate the effectiveness of TANF and related programs and subpopulations. Some of the many issues being studied and described in this annotated bibliography include:

    • - The well-being of former welfare recipients;
    • - Evaluating various Welfare-to-Work strategies;
    • - Employment retention and advancement initiatives;
    • - Rural welfare initiatives;
    • - Programs designed to serve noncustodial parents;
    • - Hard-to-serve welfare recipients and barriers to self-sufficiency;
    • - Changes in the welfare caseload; and
    • - Welfare time limits
    • - TANF reauthorization.

    (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Pate, David
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2006

    In 1996, Congress passed the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA), which made radical changes to the way the nation provides income support to low-income families. In addition to these changes in welfare policy, a substantial number of changes were made to child support policy. A major complaint about the child support system was its failure to establish paternity for children born to unmarried parents. It is necessary to establish paternity so that the child has legal access to a father for emotional, physical, and financial support. However, for children on welfare, child support may have very little impact on economic resources, depending on the state in which the child resides. Most states retain child support payments to offset the state’s financial outlay on cash welfare. In 1997 Wisconsin received a waiver from the federal distribution rules allowing it to pass through the entire amount of the child support collected to the custodial parent, and to disregard all child support in calculating TANF cash payments.  

    In 1999 and 2001,...

    In 1996, Congress passed the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA), which made radical changes to the way the nation provides income support to low-income families. In addition to these changes in welfare policy, a substantial number of changes were made to child support policy. A major complaint about the child support system was its failure to establish paternity for children born to unmarried parents. It is necessary to establish paternity so that the child has legal access to a father for emotional, physical, and financial support. However, for children on welfare, child support may have very little impact on economic resources, depending on the state in which the child resides. Most states retain child support payments to offset the state’s financial outlay on cash welfare. In 1997 Wisconsin received a waiver from the federal distribution rules allowing it to pass through the entire amount of the child support collected to the custodial parent, and to disregard all child support in calculating TANF cash payments.  

    In 1999 and 2001, I conducted ethnographic research, consisting of extensive face-to-face interviews with 36 randomly selected African American noncustodial fathers of children who received public assistance in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. The purpose of the research was to ascertain the level of knowledge on the part of noncustodial fathers concerning the child support system, in particular the passthrough policy; to understand fathers’ involvement with their children; and to explore fathers’ perspective on child support. The results from that research were that many of the fathers were ill-informed on basic child support system operations, nor had they heard about the pass-through waiver or its benefits to those paying child support for their children on welfare in Wisconsin.  

    Five years later, this new research explores the knowledge level among noncustodial and custodial parents, by race, gender, and geographic location, concerning child support policy. With the passing of time and the continuing practice of passing through child support payments with a full disregard, the knowledge of this policy may have affected the child support paying practice of noncustodial parents.

    To gather this information, I conducted sixteen focus groups in seven counties, four of them urban—Milwaukee, Dane, Racine, and Waukesha—and three rural, Manitowoc, Sauk, and Sawyer. The recruitment resulted in 157 focus group participants (87 custodial parents and 70 noncustodial parents). The participants were consumers of state and federal services available in the state of Wisconsin.  (author abstract)

     

  • Individual Author: Magnuson, Katherine A.
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2006

    This report considers the factors that influence how a father supports his noncustodial children, with attention both to fathers’ economic resources and to multiple-partner fertility. Data come from the Time, Love, Cash, Caring, and Children (TLC3) project, a longitudinal, qualitative study of 75 romantically involved couples who also participated in the Fragile Families survey. In 2002, at the time of the first survey, all couples had just had a child, and yearly data collection continued until the child was approximately 3 or 4 years old. The author considers the amount of money and goods that fathers provided for their noncustodial children from two perspectives. (author abstract)

    This report considers the factors that influence how a father supports his noncustodial children, with attention both to fathers’ economic resources and to multiple-partner fertility. Data come from the Time, Love, Cash, Caring, and Children (TLC3) project, a longitudinal, qualitative study of 75 romantically involved couples who also participated in the Fragile Families survey. In 2002, at the time of the first survey, all couples had just had a child, and yearly data collection continued until the child was approximately 3 or 4 years old. The author considers the amount of money and goods that fathers provided for their noncustodial children from two perspectives. (author abstract)

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