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The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

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  • Individual Author: Buron, Larry; Nolden, Sandra; Heintzi, Kathleen; Stewart, Julie
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2000

    Created by the Tax Reform Act of 1986, the Low-Income Housing Tax Credit (LIHTC) program is the primary affordable housing production program in the U.S. This study explores the social and economic characteristics of LIHTC residents and the neighborhoods in which these properties are located. It is intended to provide both new information on who is served by the tax credit program and to explore tenant and project characteristics in relation to the neighborhoods where the properties are developed.

    The findings of this report are based on a sample of LIHTC properties placed in service between 1992 and 1994 in five MSAs: Boston, Kansas City, Miami, Milwaukee, and Oakland. In total, 39 properties are included in the study with between six and nine properties in each MSA. Properties with fewer than 10 units, FmHA Section 515 projects, and projects serving special needs populations were not included in the study. The properties were selected to include a relatively even share of both for-profit and nonprofit-sponsored properties in each MSA (however, the results were weighted...

    Created by the Tax Reform Act of 1986, the Low-Income Housing Tax Credit (LIHTC) program is the primary affordable housing production program in the U.S. This study explores the social and economic characteristics of LIHTC residents and the neighborhoods in which these properties are located. It is intended to provide both new information on who is served by the tax credit program and to explore tenant and project characteristics in relation to the neighborhoods where the properties are developed.

    The findings of this report are based on a sample of LIHTC properties placed in service between 1992 and 1994 in five MSAs: Boston, Kansas City, Miami, Milwaukee, and Oakland. In total, 39 properties are included in the study with between six and nine properties in each MSA. Properties with fewer than 10 units, FmHA Section 515 projects, and projects serving special needs populations were not included in the study. The properties were selected to include a relatively even share of both for-profit and nonprofit-sponsored properties in each MSA (however, the results were weighted to reflect all eligible properties in the five study MSAs). Data collection included field visits and interviews with site managers and owners of each property and a telephone survey of 832 residents in the study properties. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Dearing, Eric; McCartney, Kathleen; Taylor, Beck
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2001

    Hierarchical linear modeling was used to model the dynamics of family income-to-needs for participants of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care (N = 1,364) from the time that children were 1 through 36 months of age. Associations between change in income-to-needs and 36-month child outcomes (i.e., school readiness, receptive language, expressive language, positive social behavior, and behavior problems) were examined. Although change in income-to-needs proved to be of little importance for children from nonpoor families, it proved to be of great importance for children from poor families. For children in poverty, decreases in income-to-needs were associated with worse outcomes and increases were associated with better outcomes. In fact, when children from poor families experienced increases in income-to-needs that were at least 1 SD above the mean change for poor families, they displayed outcomes similar to their nonpoor peers. The practical importance and policy implications of these findings are discussed. (author abstract)

    Hierarchical linear modeling was used to model the dynamics of family income-to-needs for participants of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care (N = 1,364) from the time that children were 1 through 36 months of age. Associations between change in income-to-needs and 36-month child outcomes (i.e., school readiness, receptive language, expressive language, positive social behavior, and behavior problems) were examined. Although change in income-to-needs proved to be of little importance for children from nonpoor families, it proved to be of great importance for children from poor families. For children in poverty, decreases in income-to-needs were associated with worse outcomes and increases were associated with better outcomes. In fact, when children from poor families experienced increases in income-to-needs that were at least 1 SD above the mean change for poor families, they displayed outcomes similar to their nonpoor peers. The practical importance and policy implications of these findings are discussed. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Nightingale, Demetra S.; Pindus, Nancy; Trutko, John; Egner, Michael
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2002

    This is one of several reports from the congressionally mandated national evaluation of the WtW grants program, being conducted by Mathematica Policy Research, Inc., along with its subcontractors the Urban Institute and Support Services International. The report presents findings from the process and implementation analysis component of the evaluation, and describes the service delivery operations of programs funded with WtW grants in eleven study sites in Boston, Massachusetts; Chicago, Illinois; Fort Worth, Texas; Milwaukee, Wisconsin; Nashville, Tennessee; Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; Phoenix, Arizona; Yakima, Washington; Indiana (19-county area); West Virginia (29-county area); and the Johns Hopkins University Multi-site Grantee operating in Baltimore County, Maryland; St. Lucie, Florida; and Long Beach, California. This report is based on (1) information collected through two rounds of site visits in 1999 and 2001, and (2) management information system data maintained by the programs on participants and services.

    The organizational systems within which the WtW grant...

    This is one of several reports from the congressionally mandated national evaluation of the WtW grants program, being conducted by Mathematica Policy Research, Inc., along with its subcontractors the Urban Institute and Support Services International. The report presents findings from the process and implementation analysis component of the evaluation, and describes the service delivery operations of programs funded with WtW grants in eleven study sites in Boston, Massachusetts; Chicago, Illinois; Fort Worth, Texas; Milwaukee, Wisconsin; Nashville, Tennessee; Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; Phoenix, Arizona; Yakima, Washington; Indiana (19-county area); West Virginia (29-county area); and the Johns Hopkins University Multi-site Grantee operating in Baltimore County, Maryland; St. Lucie, Florida; and Long Beach, California. This report is based on (1) information collected through two rounds of site visits in 1999 and 2001, and (2) management information system data maintained by the programs on participants and services.

    The organizational systems within which the WtW grant programs operate are complex and highly decentralized. In most of the eleven study sites, there are multiple programs, often operating in multiple locations, with varying arrangements for coordinating procedures with TANF agencies. Although Workforce Investment Boards (WIBs) are the primary administrative entity, many have formal interaction with TANF agencies, and are often contracted to operate TANF work programs. Nonprofit organizations also play a major role, as direct program operators under subcontract from a WtW grantee, and as providers of special services. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Nightingale, Demetra Smith; O’Brien, Carolyn Taylor; Egner, Michael; Pindus, Nancy; Trutko, John
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2003

    The Welfare-to-Work (WtW) Grants program, authorized by Congress in 1998, has provided supplemental funding to state and local agencies for employment-related services to hard-to-employ welfare recipients and noncustodial parents of children eligible for assistance. The intent was to complement funds available through the federal welfare block grant, Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF). WtW grant awards were made in phases by the U.S. Department of Labor (DOL) in 1998 and 1999, and most funds were distributed through the workforce investment system. Hundreds of programs were implemented with WtW grants, through various agencies and organizations, and all were required to coordinate with TANF agencies.

    This report updates an earlier implementation analysis report issued in June 2002 as part of the national evaluation of the WtW grants program being conducted for the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services by Mathematica Policy Research, Inc., the Urban Institute, and Support Services International. That earlier report was based on structured site visits to...

    The Welfare-to-Work (WtW) Grants program, authorized by Congress in 1998, has provided supplemental funding to state and local agencies for employment-related services to hard-to-employ welfare recipients and noncustodial parents of children eligible for assistance. The intent was to complement funds available through the federal welfare block grant, Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF). WtW grant awards were made in phases by the U.S. Department of Labor (DOL) in 1998 and 1999, and most funds were distributed through the workforce investment system. Hundreds of programs were implemented with WtW grants, through various agencies and organizations, and all were required to coordinate with TANF agencies.

    This report updates an earlier implementation analysis report issued in June 2002 as part of the national evaluation of the WtW grants program being conducted for the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services by Mathematica Policy Research, Inc., the Urban Institute, and Support Services International. That earlier report was based on structured site visits to eleven study programs in late 2001. However, several developments and trends since 2001 could have precipitated changes or adaptations at the program level: some WtW participants may be reaching their five-year lifetime limit on TANF; the federal WtW grants period is about to end nationwide; the implementation of the Workforce Investment Act (WIA) of 1998 is further along than in 2001; and the vibrant economy of the late 1990s has cooled, affecting the labor market and the fiscal condition of states.

    This report examines the local evaluation sites with regard to three issues relating to these recent changes. First, it provides an update on the status of program operations and post-WtW plans. Second, it reports on whether and how WtW grant-funded programs have adapted to economic and policy circumstances. It also provides some indicators of program administrators' opinions about WtW and whether and how it affected service capacity in their communities. The information is based on follow-up telephone contacts made in the Spring of 2003 with administrators and key staff in each of the study sites, and review of updated program information provided by administrators. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Duncan, Greg J.; National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Early Child Care Research Network
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2003

    The National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Study of Early Child Care compared 3 statistical methods that adjust for family selection bias to test whether child care type and quality relate to cognitive and academic skills. The methods included: multiple regression models of 54-month outcomes, change models of differences in 24- and 54-month outcomes, and residualized change models of 54-month outcomes adjusting for the 24-month outcome. The study was unable to establish empirically which model best adjusted for selection and omitted-variable bias. Nevertheless, results suggested that child care quality predicted cognitive outcomes at 54 months, with effect sizes of .04 to .08 for both infant and preschool ages. Center care during preschool years also predicted outcomes across all models. (Author abstract)

    The National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Study of Early Child Care compared 3 statistical methods that adjust for family selection bias to test whether child care type and quality relate to cognitive and academic skills. The methods included: multiple regression models of 54-month outcomes, change models of differences in 24- and 54-month outcomes, and residualized change models of 54-month outcomes adjusting for the 24-month outcome. The study was unable to establish empirically which model best adjusted for selection and omitted-variable bias. Nevertheless, results suggested that child care quality predicted cognitive outcomes at 54 months, with effect sizes of .04 to .08 for both infant and preschool ages. Center care during preschool years also predicted outcomes across all models. (Author abstract)

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