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The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

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  • Individual Author: Urban Policy Brief
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 1996

    This policy brief reviews U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD)-sponsored self-sufficiency programs and assesses the impact of these and similar programs on the ability of very low-income families to support themselves without welfare. Of particular interest are HUD's Family Self-Sufficiency Program, which is currently underway in housing authorities across the country, and the Gateway Transitional Families Program in Charlotte, North Carolina. Integrated supportive, educational, and vocational services can help those who receive Federal housing assistance to make positive progress towards employment, the Brief finds. Available evidence suggests, however, that the gap between employment and self-sufficiency remains wide. In their first few years out of the programs, HUD self-sufficiency graduates tend to earn around the minimum wage, but the employment income of a single parent with two children working full-time at a minimum wage job in 1995 fell about $3,400 below the Federal poverty level. Due to the limitations of most available research, the long-term...

    This policy brief reviews U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD)-sponsored self-sufficiency programs and assesses the impact of these and similar programs on the ability of very low-income families to support themselves without welfare. Of particular interest are HUD's Family Self-Sufficiency Program, which is currently underway in housing authorities across the country, and the Gateway Transitional Families Program in Charlotte, North Carolina. Integrated supportive, educational, and vocational services can help those who receive Federal housing assistance to make positive progress towards employment, the Brief finds. Available evidence suggests, however, that the gap between employment and self-sufficiency remains wide. In their first few years out of the programs, HUD self-sufficiency graduates tend to earn around the minimum wage, but the employment income of a single parent with two children working full-time at a minimum wage job in 1995 fell about $3,400 below the Federal poverty level. Due to the limitations of most available research, the long-term earnings potential of self-sufficiency graduates remains uncertain. However, the Brief cites HUD and Congress changes in public housing -- such as allowing housing authorities to hold down rents for wage-earning residents and sponsoring service-enriched environments for residents -- that will help make public housing more conducive to promoting self-sufficiency. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Helburn, Suzanne W.; Howes, Carollee
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 1996

    This article summarizes what is known about the cost and quality of full-time child care in centers and family child care homes, and about parents' attention to quality in making child care choices. It relies primarily upon two recent studies which are among the first to collect detailed information about child care operating costs: the Cost, Quality, and Child Outcomes in Child Care Centers study and the Economics of Family Child Care study. Results indicate that mediocre quality is the rule and that parents often do not choose quality settings for their children. At the present time, child care quality is only modestly related to the cost of providing services. In part, the modesty of this relationship reflects the low wages of child care staff, the availability of in-kind donations in the nonprofit sector, and the altruistic motivations of many providers that depress direct costs and the fees charged for child care. The article concludes with recommendations for future action: (1) launch consumer education efforts; (2) implement higher standards for child care at the state...

    This article summarizes what is known about the cost and quality of full-time child care in centers and family child care homes, and about parents' attention to quality in making child care choices. It relies primarily upon two recent studies which are among the first to collect detailed information about child care operating costs: the Cost, Quality, and Child Outcomes in Child Care Centers study and the Economics of Family Child Care study. Results indicate that mediocre quality is the rule and that parents often do not choose quality settings for their children. At the present time, child care quality is only modestly related to the cost of providing services. In part, the modesty of this relationship reflects the low wages of child care staff, the availability of in-kind donations in the nonprofit sector, and the altruistic motivations of many providers that depress direct costs and the fees charged for child care. The article concludes with recommendations for future action: (1) launch consumer education efforts; (2) implement higher standards for child care at the state level; (3) avoid public policies that encourage people to become child care providers if they have no interest in such a career; (4) increase public and private investments in child care; and (5) develop the means to compensate child care workers as is appropriate for their levels of training, experience, and responsibility. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Campbell, M.K.; Honess-Morreale, L.; Farrell, D.; Carbone, E.; Brasure, M.
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 1999

    This article describes the development and pilot evaluation of a tailored multimedia program to improve dietary behavior among 378 low-income women enrolled in the Food Stamp program in Durham, North Carolina. After randomization to intervention or control groups, participants completed a baseline survey and were resurveyed 1-3 months post-intervention. Measures included dietary fat intake assessed using a brief food-frequency questionnaire, stage of change, knowledge of low-fat foods, self-efficacy, and eating behavior questions. The computer-based intervention consisted of a tailored soap opera and interactive 'infomercials' that provided individualized feedback about dietary fat intake, knowledge, and strategies for lowering fat based on stage of change. At follow-up, intervention group participants had improved significantly in knowledge (P

    This article describes the development and pilot evaluation of a tailored multimedia program to improve dietary behavior among 378 low-income women enrolled in the Food Stamp program in Durham, North Carolina. After randomization to intervention or control groups, participants completed a baseline survey and were resurveyed 1-3 months post-intervention. Measures included dietary fat intake assessed using a brief food-frequency questionnaire, stage of change, knowledge of low-fat foods, self-efficacy, and eating behavior questions. The computer-based intervention consisted of a tailored soap opera and interactive 'infomercials' that provided individualized feedback about dietary fat intake, knowledge, and strategies for lowering fat based on stage of change. At follow-up, intervention group participants had improved significantly in knowledge (P

  • Individual Author: Walsh, Stephen; Goldsmith, Deana; Abe, Yasuyo; Cann, Andrea
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2000

    The Evaluation of the CET Replication Sites has its origins in the remarkable performance of a single employment and training program: the Center for Employment Training. CET is a community-based employment and training organization with headquarters in San Jose, California. CET received extensive attention in the early 1990s through the involvement of its San Jose headquarters in two major studies of employment and training programs for disadvantaged individuals. Both studies reported that participants in CET-San Jose’s programs achieved substantial and statistically significant gains in employment and earnings as compared to a control group not receiving CET services. CET-San Jose’s results were particularly noteworthy in relation to the results of outwardly similar programs. Among 16 employment and training providers participating in these two studies, CET-San Jose alone produced statistically measurable employment and earnings gains for its clients.

    Encouraged by these results, the U.S. Department of Labor sought to investigate how CET-San Jose’s successes could...

    The Evaluation of the CET Replication Sites has its origins in the remarkable performance of a single employment and training program: the Center for Employment Training. CET is a community-based employment and training organization with headquarters in San Jose, California. CET received extensive attention in the early 1990s through the involvement of its San Jose headquarters in two major studies of employment and training programs for disadvantaged individuals. Both studies reported that participants in CET-San Jose’s programs achieved substantial and statistically significant gains in employment and earnings as compared to a control group not receiving CET services. CET-San Jose’s results were particularly noteworthy in relation to the results of outwardly similar programs. Among 16 employment and training providers participating in these two studies, CET-San Jose alone produced statistically measurable employment and earnings gains for its clients.

    Encouraged by these results, the U.S. Department of Labor sought to investigate how CET-San Jose’s successes could benefit out-of-school youth and, in 1995, began an evaluation of efforts to replicate CET. In doing so, the Department of Labor anticipated the increased emphasis on services to out-of-school youth that would be mandated in the Workforce Investment Act of 1998 (WIA). WIA requires that a minimum of 30 percent of youth funds shall be used to provide activities to out-of-school youth, and encourages local programs to develop long-term, intensive services for youth. The Evaluation of the CET Replication Sites targeted out-of-school youth exclusively, and sought to provide them with intensive and comprehensive services leading to employment. This report’s findings thus appear at a critical junction in the reform of employment and training services for out-of-school youth.

    The Evaluation of the CET Replication Sites involved 12 sites in total. Six sites were located in eastern and mid-western states, and had begun their efforts to replicate CET-San Jose’s services in the early 1990s. Six additional sites were selected randomly from among those located in western states that had been operating CET programs between 5 and 20 years. All of the western sites were divisions of the CET corporation, as were two of the eastern and mid-western sites. The remaining eastern and mid-western sites included two community-based organizations and two administrative entities under the Job Training Partnership Act, the federally-funded employment and training program that preceded WIA.

    To investigate the potential benefits of CET-San Jose for out-of-school youth, the Evaluation of the CET Replication Sites was designed to examine the implementation experiences of these twelve sites, and to measure their impacts on a range of important outcomes, such as employment and earnings. This report addresses the first of these goals. It relies on data collected between 1996 and 1999 to document and explore the implementation experiences of the replication sites. A second report, scheduled for completion in 2002, will utilize long-term data on individual outcomes of CET applicants who were randomly assigned to a program group eligible for CET services or to a control group not eligible to receive these services. (author introduction)

  • Individual Author: King, Elisabeth; Elliott, Mark
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2000

    This report describes family centered employment strategies. It begins with a look at the economics of families in poverty and provides a brief outline of the many ways in which employment and training programs have begun to work with families. The report then examines the work of four employment programs now offering employment services to families: (1) a transitional employment program; (2) a refugee resettlement program; (3) a youth employment program; and (4) a faith-based program. The key elements that have enabled these programs to provide services successfully are discussed. The major federal programs used to meet the employment needs of the poor, however, remain focused principally on serving individuals. Recent Clinton administration proposals indicate that the family is beginning to occupy a more central place in the discussion of federal employment programs. Until public resources are available, it seems unlikely that many organizations will make the extraordinary effort to combine multiple revenue sources needed to serve families' employment needs successfully. An...

    This report describes family centered employment strategies. It begins with a look at the economics of families in poverty and provides a brief outline of the many ways in which employment and training programs have begun to work with families. The report then examines the work of four employment programs now offering employment services to families: (1) a transitional employment program; (2) a refugee resettlement program; (3) a youth employment program; and (4) a faith-based program. The key elements that have enabled these programs to provide services successfully are discussed. The major federal programs used to meet the employment needs of the poor, however, remain focused principally on serving individuals. Recent Clinton administration proposals indicate that the family is beginning to occupy a more central place in the discussion of federal employment programs. Until public resources are available, it seems unlikely that many organizations will make the extraordinary effort to combine multiple revenue sources needed to serve families' employment needs successfully. An appendix describes the four programs in detail.

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