Skip to main content
Back to Top

SSRC Library

The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

Writing a paper? Working on a literature review? Citing research in a funding proposal? Use the SSRC Citation Assistance Tool to compile citations.

  • Conduct a search and filter parameters as desired.
  • "Check" the box next to the resources for which you would like a citation.
  • Select "Download Selected Citation" at the top of the Library Search Page.
  • Select your export style:
    • Text File.
    • RIS Format.
    • APA format.
  • Select submit and download your citations.

The SSRC Library includes resources which may be available only via journal subscription. The SSRC may be able to provide users without subscription access to a particular journal with a single use copy of the full text.  Please email the SSRC with your request.

The SSRC Library collection is constantly growing and new research is added regularly. We welcome our users to submit a library item to help us grow our collection in response to your needs.


  • Individual Author: Helburn, Suzanne W.; Howes, Carollee
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 1996

    This article summarizes what is known about the cost and quality of full-time child care in centers and family child care homes, and about parents' attention to quality in making child care choices. It relies primarily upon two recent studies which are among the first to collect detailed information about child care operating costs: the Cost, Quality, and Child Outcomes in Child Care Centers study and the Economics of Family Child Care study. Results indicate that mediocre quality is the rule and that parents often do not choose quality settings for their children. At the present time, child care quality is only modestly related to the cost of providing services. In part, the modesty of this relationship reflects the low wages of child care staff, the availability of in-kind donations in the nonprofit sector, and the altruistic motivations of many providers that depress direct costs and the fees charged for child care. The article concludes with recommendations for future action: (1) launch consumer education efforts; (2) implement higher standards for child care at the state...

    This article summarizes what is known about the cost and quality of full-time child care in centers and family child care homes, and about parents' attention to quality in making child care choices. It relies primarily upon two recent studies which are among the first to collect detailed information about child care operating costs: the Cost, Quality, and Child Outcomes in Child Care Centers study and the Economics of Family Child Care study. Results indicate that mediocre quality is the rule and that parents often do not choose quality settings for their children. At the present time, child care quality is only modestly related to the cost of providing services. In part, the modesty of this relationship reflects the low wages of child care staff, the availability of in-kind donations in the nonprofit sector, and the altruistic motivations of many providers that depress direct costs and the fees charged for child care. The article concludes with recommendations for future action: (1) launch consumer education efforts; (2) implement higher standards for child care at the state level; (3) avoid public policies that encourage people to become child care providers if they have no interest in such a career; (4) increase public and private investments in child care; and (5) develop the means to compensate child care workers as is appropriate for their levels of training, experience, and responsibility. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Bloom, Dan; Andes, Mary; Nicholson, Claudia
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 1998

    Connecticut’s Jobs First program is a statewide welfare reform initiative that began operating in January 1996. Jobs First was one of the earliest statewide programs to impose a time limit on welfare receipt: Most families are limited to 21 months of cash assistance. The program also includes generous financial work incentives and requires recipients to participate in employment-related services targeted toward rapid job placement. (See Table ES.1.) Jobs First was initiated under waivers of federal welfare rules that were granted before the passage of the 1996 federal welfare law; thus, the program’s experience may provide important lessons on the likely results of welfare reforms implemented across the country in response to the new law.

    This report has been prepared as part of a large-scale evaluation of Jobs First being conducted by the Manpower Demonstration Research Corporation (MDRC). The evaluation is funded under a contract with the Connecticut Department of Social Services (DSS) — the agency that administers Jobs First — and with support from the U.S. Department...

    Connecticut’s Jobs First program is a statewide welfare reform initiative that began operating in January 1996. Jobs First was one of the earliest statewide programs to impose a time limit on welfare receipt: Most families are limited to 21 months of cash assistance. The program also includes generous financial work incentives and requires recipients to participate in employment-related services targeted toward rapid job placement. (See Table ES.1.) Jobs First was initiated under waivers of federal welfare rules that were granted before the passage of the 1996 federal welfare law; thus, the program’s experience may provide important lessons on the likely results of welfare reforms implemented across the country in response to the new law.

    This report has been prepared as part of a large-scale evaluation of Jobs First being conducted by the Manpower Demonstration Research Corporation (MDRC). The evaluation is funded under a contract with the Connecticut Department of Social Services (DSS) — the agency that administers Jobs First — and with support from the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Ford Foundation, and the Smith Richardson Foundation. MDRC is a nonprofit, nonpartisan organization with more than two decades’ experience designing and evaluating social policy initiatives. The study focuses on two of the state’s welfare offices — New Haven and Manchester — which include about one-fourth of the state’s welfare caseload.

    The report describes Jobs First’s implementation in the research sites during roughly the first two years of program operations, from early 1996 to early 1998.1 It focuses primarily on the "pre-time limit period" — the period before Jobs First participants reached the 21-month time limit — but also includes early information on the process that occurs when individuals approach and then reach the time limit. Recipients began to reach that point in late 1997. The report does not present data on whether Jobs First has generated changes in recipients’ employment or welfare receipt patterns, income, or other measures relative to the welfare system it replaced. The first such data will be presented in an interim report scheduled for 1999. The study’s final report is scheduled for 2001. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: U.S. General Accounting Office (GAO)
    Year: 1998

    Pursuant to a congressional request, GAO provided information on how successful states are likely to be in obtaining child support for families whose benefits are subject to time limits, focusing on: (1) how successful states that experimented with time-limited benefits before welfare reform have been in obtaining child support for families who reach their limits; (2) how successful states have been in obtaining child support for families within a 5-year period, the maximum time a family may receive Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) benefits; and (3) the implications time limits have for states and families.

    GAO noted that: (1) many TANF families may not be able to count on child support as a steady source of income when their time-limited welfare benefits expire; (2) in the first three states to enforce welfare benefit time limits--Connecticut, Florida, and Virginia--only about 20 to 30 percent of families had any child support collected for them in the 12 months before their welfare benefits were terminated; (3) about one-half or more of the child support...

    Pursuant to a congressional request, GAO provided information on how successful states are likely to be in obtaining child support for families whose benefits are subject to time limits, focusing on: (1) how successful states that experimented with time-limited benefits before welfare reform have been in obtaining child support for families who reach their limits; (2) how successful states have been in obtaining child support for families within a 5-year period, the maximum time a family may receive Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) benefits; and (3) the implications time limits have for states and families.

    GAO noted that: (1) many TANF families may not be able to count on child support as a steady source of income when their time-limited welfare benefits expire; (2) in the first three states to enforce welfare benefit time limits--Connecticut, Florida, and Virginia--only about 20 to 30 percent of families had any child support collected for them in the 12 months before their welfare benefits were terminated; (3) about one-half or more of the child support cases without collections lacked a child support order legally obligating a noncustodial parent to pay child support at the time the families' assistance was terminated, despite having a long history in the child support program before time limits were implemented; (4) for families whose child support was secured, the median collections among the three states ranged from a total of $581 to $1,348 for the 12-month period; (5) in two high-performing child support states, Minnesota and Washington, GAO observed better outcomes for a sample of Aid to Families with Dependent Children child support cases that first opened in 1992 and remained open for 5 years; (6) about two-thirds of the families received some child support in the last 12 months of that period; (7) support order establishment rates were higher for these cases as well: in both states, orders were established within 5 years for more than 80 percent of the cases that needed them; (8) the median amounts of child support collected for these families ranged from $1,875 to $2,118 for the 12-month period; (9) despite these outcomes, about one-third of the child support clients in these states reached the end of the 5-year period without any child support; (10) to better ensure that child support is available for families in a time-limited welfare system, states will need to improve their child support performance for families already in the welfare system and for those who enter it for the first time; (11) in the three states GAO studied that had imposed time limits on families already receiving aid, from one-half to three-quarters of the families could not get child support because the state did not or could not locate the noncustodial parent; (12) it is also important for states to move quickly to pursue child support for families that have just begun receiving aid; (13) state officials told GAO that information on noncustodial parents is best pursued early and aggressively to achieve successful outcomes; and (14) GAO's analysis showed that successful outcomes are most likely within 2 years after a family begins receiving child support services. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Bloom, Dan ; Melton, Laura ; Michalopoulos, Charles ; Scrivener, Susan ; Walter, Johanna
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2000

    Connecticut’s Jobs First program is a statewide welfare reform initiative that began operating in January 1996. Jobs First was one of the earliest statewide programs to impose a time limit on welfare receipt: Families are limited to 21 months of cash assistance unless they receive an exemption or extension. The program also includes generous financial work incentives and requires recipients to participate in employment-related services targeted toward rapid job placement. Jobs First was initiated under waivers of federal welfare rules that were granted before the passage of the 1996 federal welfare law (the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act, or PRWORA); how the program fares over time may provide important lessons on the likely results of welfare reforms implemented in other parts of the country in response to the federal law.

    This report has been prepared as part of a large-scale evaluation of Jobs First being conducted by the Manpower Demonstration Research Corporation (MDRC). The evaluation is funded under a contract with the Connecticut...

    Connecticut’s Jobs First program is a statewide welfare reform initiative that began operating in January 1996. Jobs First was one of the earliest statewide programs to impose a time limit on welfare receipt: Families are limited to 21 months of cash assistance unless they receive an exemption or extension. The program also includes generous financial work incentives and requires recipients to participate in employment-related services targeted toward rapid job placement. Jobs First was initiated under waivers of federal welfare rules that were granted before the passage of the 1996 federal welfare law (the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act, or PRWORA); how the program fares over time may provide important lessons on the likely results of welfare reforms implemented in other parts of the country in response to the federal law.

    This report has been prepared as part of a large-scale evaluation of Jobs First being conducted by the Manpower Demonstration Research Corporation (MDRC). The evaluation is funded under a contract with the Connecticut Department of Social Services (DSS) — the agency that administers Jobs First — and with support from the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Ford Foundation, and the Smith Richardson Foundation. The study focuses on two welfare offices — Manchester and New Haven — which together include more than one-fourth of the state’s welfare caseload. MDRC is a nonprofit, nonpartisan organization with a quarter century’s experience designing and evaluating programs and policies for low-income individuals, families, and communities.

    This is the third publication in the Jobs First evaluation. The earlier reports, completed in 1997 and 1998, examined the implementation of Jobs First during its first two years of program operations. This report updates the implementation story, and also includes the first information about Jobs First’s impacts — that is, the difference Jobs First makes relative to the outcomes generated by the welfare system that preceded it. To facilitate this assessment, between January 1996 and February 1997 several thousand welfare applicants and recipients (most of them single mothers) were assigned, at random, to one of two groups: the Jobs First group, whose members are subject to the welfare reform policies, and the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) group, whose members are subject to the prior welfare rules. Because people were assigned to the groups through a random process, any differences that emerge between the two groups over time — for example, in employment rates or average family income — can reliably be attributed to Jobs First.

    The report follows early enrollees in the two groups for up to two and a half years, slightly beyond the point when Jobs First group members began reaching the time limit. The study’s final report, scheduled for 2001, will follow all members of the groups for up to four years, and will be accompanied by a separate document describing the impacts of Jobs First for children. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Melton, Laura; Bloom, Dan
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2000

    This report provides data on families who have left cash assistance in Connecticut. The report was produced by the Manpower Demonstration Research Corporation (MDRC), which is conducting a large-scale evaluation of Jobs First, Connecticut’s welfare reform initiative, under a contract with the state’s Department of Social Services (DSS). Other reports issued by MDRC have described the implementation of Jobs First, its impacts on employment and welfare outcomes, and the circumstances of families who left welfare because of Jobs First’s 21-month time limit on cash assistance receipt.

    This report focuses mainly on people who entered the Jobs First evaluation when they were applying for or receiving cash assistance in the Manchester and New Haven DSS offices between January and June 1996, and who left cash assistance at some point within 18 months after entering the study (before reaching the 21-month time limit).

    Many of the outcomes for welfare leavers in Connecticut are shaped by the state’s unusual financial work incentive, which allows working cash assistance...

    This report provides data on families who have left cash assistance in Connecticut. The report was produced by the Manpower Demonstration Research Corporation (MDRC), which is conducting a large-scale evaluation of Jobs First, Connecticut’s welfare reform initiative, under a contract with the state’s Department of Social Services (DSS). Other reports issued by MDRC have described the implementation of Jobs First, its impacts on employment and welfare outcomes, and the circumstances of families who left welfare because of Jobs First’s 21-month time limit on cash assistance receipt.

    This report focuses mainly on people who entered the Jobs First evaluation when they were applying for or receiving cash assistance in the Manchester and New Haven DSS offices between January and June 1996, and who left cash assistance at some point within 18 months after entering the study (before reaching the 21-month time limit).

    Many of the outcomes for welfare leavers in Connecticut are shaped by the state’s unusual financial work incentive, which allows working cash assistance recipients to retain their entire welfare grant as long as their earnings are below the federal poverty level. This generous policy, known as an earned income disregard, means that many of the cash assistance recipients who find jobs remain on welfare at least for a time, and thus do not become welfare leavers.

    About half of the welfare leavers were employed in the immediate post-welfare period. This rate is fairly low compared to the rates found in similar studies in other states, presumably because of the enhanced disregard. In other states, a greater proportion of those who find jobs become welfare leavers whereas, in Connecticut, they are more likely to remain on welfare. A positive side-effect of the disregard is that the leavers who are employed have relatively higher earnings, averaging around $3,400 per quarter. Again, this is because people with earnings below the poverty level are likely to remain on welfare.

    About one-fourth of those who left welfare returned to cash assistance within one year after leaving. This rate is somewhat lower than in other states, possibly because the individuals who left welfare for work in Connecticut had fairly good-paying jobs. Less than one-third of the welfare leavers received Food Stamps after leaving welfare; however, no data are available on what proportion of these families were actually eligible for Food Stamps.

    In a survey conducted 18 months after people entered the study, respondents who were off welfare when interviewed reported average monthly household income of just over $1,500. Just over 70 percent had health insurance, usually through Medicaid. A little less than half reported that they owned a car. In general, it appeared that non-working leavers were worse off than working leavers, although only a small number of non-working leavers were interviewed.

    Finally, the report briefly compares individuals who left welfare due to the 21-month time limit with those who left welfare before reaching the time limit, finding that the time-limit leavers had a much higher rate of employment. This is because of the way Connecticut’s time limit is implemented: for the most part, recipients who reach the time limit without employment are granted at least one six-month extension of their benefits; thus, most of the people whose benefits are canceled at the time limit are employed. (author abstract)

Sort by

Topical Area(s)

Popular Searches

Source

Year

Year ranges from 1996 to 2018

Reference Type

Research Methodology

Geographic Focus

Target Populations