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The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

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  • Individual Author: Administration for Children and Families
    Reference Type: Stakeholder Resource
    Year: 1998

    The first meeting of grantees for the Administration for Children and Families (ACF) Rural Welfare to Work Strategies project was held December 3-4, 1998, at the Hyatt Capitol Hill, Washington, DC. Representatives from the following States attended: Illinois, Iowa, Louisiana, Maryland, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, New York, Vermont and Washington.

    Helen Howerton, Chief, Division of Child and Family Development, Office of Planning, Research, and Evaluation (OPRE), ACF, welcomed grantees, provided an overview of the meeting, and presented an overview of ACF’s research agenda under welfare reform.

    Jim Dolson is the Project Officer for each of the grants and has most likely already been in touch with all of the grantees. (author abstract)

    The first meeting of grantees for the Administration for Children and Families (ACF) Rural Welfare to Work Strategies project was held December 3-4, 1998, at the Hyatt Capitol Hill, Washington, DC. Representatives from the following States attended: Illinois, Iowa, Louisiana, Maryland, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, New York, Vermont and Washington.

    Helen Howerton, Chief, Division of Child and Family Development, Office of Planning, Research, and Evaluation (OPRE), ACF, welcomed grantees, provided an overview of the meeting, and presented an overview of ACF’s research agenda under welfare reform.

    Jim Dolson is the Project Officer for each of the grants and has most likely already been in touch with all of the grantees. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Shirk, Martha; Bennett, Neil G.; Aber, J. Lawrence
    Reference Type: Book Chapter/Book
    Year: 1999

    In Lives on the Line, Martha Shirk, Neil G. Bennett, and NCCP Director J. Lawrence Aber meld affecting personal profiles with sophisticated demographic analysis to create a vivid portrait of what life is like for more than 14 million American children growing up below the poverty line. In personal profiles of ten families across the nation, from a Pacific Islander family in Hawaii to a homeless family in a wealthy New York City suburb, award-winning journalist Martha Shirk depicts the realities of life for children below the poverty line. She takes readers deep into the lives of families in poverty—lives sometimes marked by childhood abuse, parental loss, and long-term violence—and with each family explores their prospects for moving above the poverty threshold. Along the way, Shirk finds amazing resilience, resourcefulness, and strength of spirit in many of these poor families.

    Neil G. Bennett, Director of Demography for the National Center for Children in Poverty at Columbia University (NCCP), shatters many commonly held stereotypes by analyzing Census Bureau...

    In Lives on the Line, Martha Shirk, Neil G. Bennett, and NCCP Director J. Lawrence Aber meld affecting personal profiles with sophisticated demographic analysis to create a vivid portrait of what life is like for more than 14 million American children growing up below the poverty line. In personal profiles of ten families across the nation, from a Pacific Islander family in Hawaii to a homeless family in a wealthy New York City suburb, award-winning journalist Martha Shirk depicts the realities of life for children below the poverty line. She takes readers deep into the lives of families in poverty—lives sometimes marked by childhood abuse, parental loss, and long-term violence—and with each family explores their prospects for moving above the poverty threshold. Along the way, Shirk finds amazing resilience, resourcefulness, and strength of spirit in many of these poor families.

    Neil G. Bennett, Director of Demography for the National Center for Children in Poverty at Columbia University (NCCP), shatters many commonly held stereotypes by analyzing Census Bureau data to show which American children are most likely to be poor. He reports, for instance, that over 60 percent of poor young children have at least one employed parent, that most poor young children live in suburban or rural areas, and that a parent's graduation from high school is insufficient to insure against poverty. Among his most startling findings are that in the last two decades, the Young Child Poverty Rate grew significantly faster in the suburbs than in urban or rural areas, and that it grew much faster among whites than among blacks.

    J. Lawrence Aber, a nationally recognized expert in child development and social policy, describes the effects of poverty on child development and showcases proven strategies for preventing or reducing child poverty. He also shows us that it is in our national self-interest to address the problem of child poverty by making a smart investment in America's future.

    As a powerful portrait of the effects of poverty on America's children and families, Lives on the Line narrows the gap between “them” and “us.” It will change the way you think about the poor. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Krehmeyer, Christopher ; Salsich, Peter W. ; Schmit, Cathryne L.
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 1999

    Over the last two decades child and family poverty has increased while resources for families at risk have decreased. Families in large urban areas, faced with increasing poverty and isolation, arc at very high risk. Economic, and often racial, isolation leaves these families struggling amidst inadequate resources as they attempt to move their children into a position of strength. Without adequate, stable, safe housing families cannot meet their most basic needs. Beyond housing, families need access to the resources and services which help them gain the personal and job skills needed to gain economic self-sufficiency. This article reviews the development of one agency's work to provide the housing and support services low income single mothers need to help them move to a position of self-sufficiency. (author abstract)

    Over the last two decades child and family poverty has increased while resources for families at risk have decreased. Families in large urban areas, faced with increasing poverty and isolation, arc at very high risk. Economic, and often racial, isolation leaves these families struggling amidst inadequate resources as they attempt to move their children into a position of strength. Without adequate, stable, safe housing families cannot meet their most basic needs. Beyond housing, families need access to the resources and services which help them gain the personal and job skills needed to gain economic self-sufficiency. This article reviews the development of one agency's work to provide the housing and support services low income single mothers need to help them move to a position of self-sufficiency. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Administration for Children and Families
    Reference Type: Stakeholder Resource
    Year: 1999

    The second meeting of grantees for the Administration for Children and Families (ACF) Rural Welfare to Work Strategies project was held June 28-29, 1999, at the Humphrey Building, Washington, DC. Representatives from the following States attended: Illinois, Iowa, Louisiana, Maryland, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, New York, Vermont, and Washington.

    Mary Ann MacKenzie, Office of Planning, Research, and Evaluation (OPRE), ACF, welcomed grantees and noted ACF's excitement about the initiative, which is on the cutting edge of welfare reform research. Over 19 States have a population that is more than 30 percent rural. The goal of this initiative is to identify what is working in rural welfare reform and to foster collaboration among States in future efforts. (author abstract)

    The second meeting of grantees for the Administration for Children and Families (ACF) Rural Welfare to Work Strategies project was held June 28-29, 1999, at the Humphrey Building, Washington, DC. Representatives from the following States attended: Illinois, Iowa, Louisiana, Maryland, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, New York, Vermont, and Washington.

    Mary Ann MacKenzie, Office of Planning, Research, and Evaluation (OPRE), ACF, welcomed grantees and noted ACF's excitement about the initiative, which is on the cutting edge of welfare reform research. Over 19 States have a population that is more than 30 percent rural. The goal of this initiative is to identify what is working in rural welfare reform and to foster collaboration among States in future efforts. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Maloy, Kathleen A.; Pavetti, LaDonna A.; Darnell, Julie; Shin, Peter
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 1999

    The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 (PRWORA) ended the individual entitlement to welfare benefits and gave states new flexibility to emphasize work instead welfare. PRWORA also severed the traditional eligibility link between Medicaid and welfare. This research examined the emergence of diversion programs as a particular aspect of state welfare reform efforts and the potential for diversion programs to reduce access to Medicaid. In this second of two reports, we present the results of case studies in five states.

    Major findings from this research are:

    • Formal strategies to divert families from welfare are an increasingly common aspect of states' efforts to shift to a work-oriented assistance system. These efforts to emphasize work instead of welfare on the “front end” can also result in informal diversion.
    • Design and implementation of diversion programs reflect state and/or local goals and philosophies; these five states represent a range of diversion strategies that illustrate the importance of understanding key...

    The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 (PRWORA) ended the individual entitlement to welfare benefits and gave states new flexibility to emphasize work instead welfare. PRWORA also severed the traditional eligibility link between Medicaid and welfare. This research examined the emergence of diversion programs as a particular aspect of state welfare reform efforts and the potential for diversion programs to reduce access to Medicaid. In this second of two reports, we present the results of case studies in five states.

    Major findings from this research are:

    • Formal strategies to divert families from welfare are an increasingly common aspect of states' efforts to shift to a work-oriented assistance system. These efforts to emphasize work instead of welfare on the “front end” can also result in informal diversion.
    • Design and implementation of diversion programs reflect state and/or local goals and philosophies; these five states represent a range of diversion strategies that illustrate the importance of understanding key design and implementation choices in each state and, in some cases, each local office within a state.
    • Of the three types of formal diversion, mandatory applicant job search represents the fastest growing program with the greatest potential to divert large numbers of families.
    • Diversion, both formal and informal, has substantial potential to reduce initial access to Medicaid, particularly as families increasingly bypass welfare or go to work quickly thereby becoming ineligible for Medicaid under most states’ current eligibility criteria.
    • State officials can ameliorate this effect on Medicaid by improving implementation efforts and taking advantage of policy options under Section 1931 to focus attention on Medicaid as a stand-alone health insurance program for low-income families.
    • The compelling Medicaid and welfare reform policy challenge posed by diversion is how to use Medicaid effectively to support the welfare reform goal to promote work. Because PRWORA fundamentally changed the nature of the welfare system, states can and should consider whether it is a desirable consequence of their Medicaid and welfare policies that access to Medicaid for diverted families is limited or unavailable.
    • Little information is available on the number and circumstances of families who have been diverted from the welfare rolls. Without such information, reports on the success or failure of state welfare reform efforts will be incomplete.

    (author abstract)

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