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The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

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  • Individual Author: Freedman, Stephen; Friedlander, Daniel; Lin, Winston; Schweder, Amanda
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 1996

    The paper summarizes the latest finding on the effectiveness of California’s Greater Avenues for Independence (GAIN) Program, a statewide initiative aimed at increasing the employment and self-sufficiency of recipients of Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC), the nation's major case welfare program. GAIN’s effects are estimated for a sample of 33,000 persons from six counties — including single parents (AFDC-FGs) and unemployed heads of two-parent households (AFDC-Us) — who entered the program between early 1988 and mid-1990. Each sample member was then assigned at random to either an experimental group, who were required to participate in GAIN, or to a control group who were precluded from the program but could seek other services in their community. The paper compares average earnings and AFDC payments for each group over a five-year follow-up, beginning with the first quarter after random assignment (i.e., from quarters 2 through 21). Differences in average earnings and AFDC payments for each group represent the effects, or impacts, of GAIN.

    The paper and...

    The paper summarizes the latest finding on the effectiveness of California’s Greater Avenues for Independence (GAIN) Program, a statewide initiative aimed at increasing the employment and self-sufficiency of recipients of Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC), the nation's major case welfare program. GAIN’s effects are estimated for a sample of 33,000 persons from six counties — including single parents (AFDC-FGs) and unemployed heads of two-parent households (AFDC-Us) — who entered the program between early 1988 and mid-1990. Each sample member was then assigned at random to either an experimental group, who were required to participate in GAIN, or to a control group who were precluded from the program but could seek other services in their community. The paper compares average earnings and AFDC payments for each group over a five-year follow-up, beginning with the first quarter after random assignment (i.e., from quarters 2 through 21). Differences in average earnings and AFDC payments for each group represent the effects, or impacts, of GAIN.

    The paper and attached tables and graphs add two years of follow-up to the impact results in Riccio, Friedlander, and Freedman (1994). Among the most noteworthy findings of this paper is that earning gains continued through year five for both assistance groups. GAIN also continued to produce savings in AFDC payments, but only for AFDC-FGs. Such persistence in program effects is unusual for a welfare-to-work initiative and represents a significant achievement for the GAIN program. On the other hand, only about 4 in 10 experimental group members in either assistance group worked for pay during the final year of follow-up; and a relatively large percentage (nearly 40 percent of AFDC-FGs and close to half of AFDC-Us) were receiving AFDC payment at the end of year five. These results indicate that future improvements in the program effectiveness will depend in part on success in helping these long-term AFDC recipients find stable employment. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Doolittle, Fred; Lynn, Suzanne
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 1998

    Parents’ Fair Share (PFS) research on child support enforcement has several goals. First, it seeks to provide insights into the interaction between local child support enforcement systems and noncustodial parents whose children are on welfare. The approach taken in this report is to analyze what happened when the seven sites in the PFS Demonstration sought to identify low-income, unemployed noncustodial parents appropriate for PFS and refer them to the program. The report carries this story up to the point of referral of appropriate noncustodial parents to the program. Later reports in the project will continue the story, examining the implementation of PFS’s enhanced child support enforcement for noncustodial parents referred to the program and estimating program impacts on payment of child support and other key outcomes. (author abstract)

    Parents’ Fair Share (PFS) research on child support enforcement has several goals. First, it seeks to provide insights into the interaction between local child support enforcement systems and noncustodial parents whose children are on welfare. The approach taken in this report is to analyze what happened when the seven sites in the PFS Demonstration sought to identify low-income, unemployed noncustodial parents appropriate for PFS and refer them to the program. The report carries this story up to the point of referral of appropriate noncustodial parents to the program. Later reports in the project will continue the story, examining the implementation of PFS’s enhanced child support enforcement for noncustodial parents referred to the program and estimating program impacts on payment of child support and other key outcomes. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Moreno, Manuel H. ; Lichter, Michael; González, Elizabeth; Hedderson, John; Horton, John; Shaw, Linda; Henderson, Jeff; Hughes, Ronald
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 1999

    This is the second report of the project Evaluating CalWORKs in Los Angeles County, a multi-year effort initiated by the Los Angeles County Department of Public Social Services (DPSS) to evaluate the impact of welfare reform in Los Angeles County. This project follows guidelines established in the CalWORKs Performance Monitoring and Evaluation Plan approved by the Los Angeles County Board of Supervisors in April 1998. The plan has three major objectives: (1) measuring the success of welfare-to-work; (2) monitoring the effectiveness of program implementation; and (3) evaluating the impact of CalWORKs on family well-being and local communities. This report addresses the second part of the plan, monitoring program implementation, and focuses on the early implementation of CalWORKs in Los Angeles County.

    This report summarizes the findings of our initial monitoring of the implementation of welfare reform in Los Angeles County. The report shows that the complexity of welfare reform in Los Angeles County has generated significant challenges for the Department of Public Social...

    This is the second report of the project Evaluating CalWORKs in Los Angeles County, a multi-year effort initiated by the Los Angeles County Department of Public Social Services (DPSS) to evaluate the impact of welfare reform in Los Angeles County. This project follows guidelines established in the CalWORKs Performance Monitoring and Evaluation Plan approved by the Los Angeles County Board of Supervisors in April 1998. The plan has three major objectives: (1) measuring the success of welfare-to-work; (2) monitoring the effectiveness of program implementation; and (3) evaluating the impact of CalWORKs on family well-being and local communities. This report addresses the second part of the plan, monitoring program implementation, and focuses on the early implementation of CalWORKs in Los Angeles County.

    This report summarizes the findings of our initial monitoring of the implementation of welfare reform in Los Angeles County. The report shows that the complexity of welfare reform in Los Angeles County has generated significant challenges for the Department of Public Social Services. We find in this report that DPSS has had to make major organizational and procedural changes to meet the demands of welfare reform. Lastly, the report finds that DPSS has made substantial progress towards the implementation of CalWORKs in Los Angeles County. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Moreno, Manuel H.; Hedderson, John; Lichter, Michael; González, Elizabeth; Henderson, Jeff
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 1999

    In this report, we present a preliminary analysis of the performance of CalWORKs in Los Angeles County. We are especially interested in how well the GAIN program moves families from welfare to employment and economic self-sufficiency. Although our work at this time is based on administrative records, we are beginning surveys and focus groups that will enable us to report on barriers to employment, support services and job satisfaction. In the first quarter of 1999, we will report on the best practices and obstacles to the success of CalWORKs. In the second quarter of 1999, we will address the broader impacts of CalWORKs on participants, their families and their communities. Although this first report is based on limited data, it provides important initial findings to be used as baseline statistics in later evaluations. (author abstract)

    In this report, we present a preliminary analysis of the performance of CalWORKs in Los Angeles County. We are especially interested in how well the GAIN program moves families from welfare to employment and economic self-sufficiency. Although our work at this time is based on administrative records, we are beginning surveys and focus groups that will enable us to report on barriers to employment, support services and job satisfaction. In the first quarter of 1999, we will report on the best practices and obstacles to the success of CalWORKs. In the second quarter of 1999, we will address the broader impacts of CalWORKs on participants, their families and their communities. Although this first report is based on limited data, it provides important initial findings to be used as baseline statistics in later evaluations. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Freedman, Stephen; Mitchell, Marisa; Navarro, David
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 1999

    This report presents first-year participation and impact findings from the evaluation of the Los Angeles Jobs-First GAIN (Greater Avenues for Independence) program, the largest county welfare-to-work program in the nation. Consistent with the philosophy and goals of the 1996 federal welfare reform legislation that created TANF, Los Angeles Jobs-First GAIN emphasizes job search assistance and imparts a strong pro-work message in attempting to move thousands of AFDC/TANF recipients quickly into jobs and, as soon as feasible, off the welfare rolls. This message and emphasis place Jobs-First GAIN in the category of Work First programs, the approach followed by most current state and local welfare-to-work programs. Most of the features of Jobs-First GAIN continue under CalWORKs, California’s program under the TANF provisions. Los Angeles inaugurated its CalWORKs program in April 1998, after the follow-up period for this report. The findings on Jobs-First GAIN have broad significance for welfare reform. Los Angeles County, with a total population of 9.6 million people, has the largest...

    This report presents first-year participation and impact findings from the evaluation of the Los Angeles Jobs-First GAIN (Greater Avenues for Independence) program, the largest county welfare-to-work program in the nation. Consistent with the philosophy and goals of the 1996 federal welfare reform legislation that created TANF, Los Angeles Jobs-First GAIN emphasizes job search assistance and imparts a strong pro-work message in attempting to move thousands of AFDC/TANF recipients quickly into jobs and, as soon as feasible, off the welfare rolls. This message and emphasis place Jobs-First GAIN in the category of Work First programs, the approach followed by most current state and local welfare-to-work programs. Most of the features of Jobs-First GAIN continue under CalWORKs, California’s program under the TANF provisions. Los Angeles inaugurated its CalWORKs program in April 1998, after the follow-up period for this report. The findings on Jobs-First GAIN have broad significance for welfare reform. Los Angeles County, with a total population of 9.6 million people, has the largest welfare population of any county in the United States (about 700,000 people, in about a quarter of a million cases) — roughly one-twelfth of the nation’s welfare caseload and larger than that of any state except New York and California. Hispanics and African-Americans make up about 80 percent of the county’s welfare population. If Los Angeles County’s Work First program succeeds in moving significant numbers of people from welfare to work, the program can serve as a model for many other large urban areas.(author abstract)

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