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The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

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  • Individual Author: Martinson, Karin; Copson, Elizabeth; Gardiner, Karen; Kitrosser, Daniel
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2018

    This report documents the implementation and early impacts of the Carreras en Salud (Careers in Health) program, operated by Instituto del Progreso Latino, in Chicago, Illinois. The Carreras en Salud program is one promising effort aimed at helping low-income, low-skilled adults access and complete occupational training that can lead to increased employment and higher earnings. A distinctive feature of this program is its focus on training for low-income Latinos for employment in healthcare occupations, primarily Certified Nursing Assistant (CNA) and Licensed Practical Nurse (LPN). It is among nine career pathways programs being evaluated in the Pathways for Advancing Careers and Education (PACE) study sponsored by the Administration for Children and Families. The Carreras en Salud program consists of five elements: (1) a structured healthcare training pathway, starting at low skill levels; (2) contextualized and accelerated basic skills and ESL instruction; (3) academic advising and non-academic supports; (4) financial assistance; and (5) employment services. Using a rigorous...

    This report documents the implementation and early impacts of the Carreras en Salud (Careers in Health) program, operated by Instituto del Progreso Latino, in Chicago, Illinois. The Carreras en Salud program is one promising effort aimed at helping low-income, low-skilled adults access and complete occupational training that can lead to increased employment and higher earnings. A distinctive feature of this program is its focus on training for low-income Latinos for employment in healthcare occupations, primarily Certified Nursing Assistant (CNA) and Licensed Practical Nurse (LPN). It is among nine career pathways programs being evaluated in the Pathways for Advancing Careers and Education (PACE) study sponsored by the Administration for Children and Families. The Carreras en Salud program consists of five elements: (1) a structured healthcare training pathway, starting at low skill levels; (2) contextualized and accelerated basic skills and ESL instruction; (3) academic advising and non-academic supports; (4) financial assistance; and (5) employment services. Using a rigorous research design, the study found that the Carreras en Salud program increased hours of occupational training and basic skills instruction received and the attainment of education credentials within an 18-month follow-up period. The program also increased employment in the healthcare field and resulted in a reduction of participants reporting financial hardship. Future reports will examine whether these effects translate into gains in employment and earnings. (Author introduction)

  • Individual Author: Golding, Edward; Goodman, Laurie; Strochak, Sarah
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2018

    This brief reports on research which establishes that limited English proficiency is an additional barrier to homeownership. The researchers first define and identify the 5.3 million heads of household in the United States with limited English proficiency (LEP). Using descriptive analysis and regression models, they then determine that, at the zip code level, higher rates of LEP are associated with lower homeownership rates. Specifically, if the other factors that influence homeownership (e.g., income, age, and race or ethnicity) are controlled for, communities with the highest concentrations of LEP residents have homeownership rates 5 percentage points lower than communities with the median concentration of LEP residents. In other words, limited English proficiency is an additional barrier to homeownership. (Author abstract) 

    This brief reports on research which establishes that limited English proficiency is an additional barrier to homeownership. The researchers first define and identify the 5.3 million heads of household in the United States with limited English proficiency (LEP). Using descriptive analysis and regression models, they then determine that, at the zip code level, higher rates of LEP are associated with lower homeownership rates. Specifically, if the other factors that influence homeownership (e.g., income, age, and race or ethnicity) are controlled for, communities with the highest concentrations of LEP residents have homeownership rates 5 percentage points lower than communities with the median concentration of LEP residents. In other words, limited English proficiency is an additional barrier to homeownership. (Author abstract) 

  • Individual Author: Betts, Julian; Bachofer, Karen Volz; Hayes, Joseph; Hill, Laura; Lee, Andrew; Zau, Andrew
    Reference Type: Conference Paper
    Year: 2018

    The paper uses longitudinal student data to study the correlates of academic progress of English Learners (ELs) in the Los Angeles and San Diego Unified School Districts, which together account for roughly 15% of ELs in California and 5% in the nation. We focus on two types of ELs of special policy concern – Long Term ELs who have completed at least five years in the district without being reclassified as English-fluent, and Late Arriving ELs who arrive in the district during secondary school with low levels of English proficiency. We study in detail the fidelity with which schools assign ELs to English Language Development (ELD) classes according to each districts’ EL Master Plans. We then model gains in English and math performance, and on the state’s test of EL language proficiency, as a function of a school’s fidelity of implementation to the course placement criteria. We also consider two other types of factors: multiple measures of the demographic makeup of the school’s student body — including the percentage of students who are ELs and the diversity of languages spoken —...

    The paper uses longitudinal student data to study the correlates of academic progress of English Learners (ELs) in the Los Angeles and San Diego Unified School Districts, which together account for roughly 15% of ELs in California and 5% in the nation. We focus on two types of ELs of special policy concern – Long Term ELs who have completed at least five years in the district without being reclassified as English-fluent, and Late Arriving ELs who arrive in the district during secondary school with low levels of English proficiency. We study in detail the fidelity with which schools assign ELs to English Language Development (ELD) classes according to each districts’ EL Master Plans. We then model gains in English and math performance, and on the state’s test of EL language proficiency, as a function of a school’s fidelity of implementation to the course placement criteria. We also consider two other types of factors: multiple measures of the demographic makeup of the school’s student body — including the percentage of students who are ELs and the diversity of languages spoken — and indicators of various programs and supports the two districts provide to ELs. (Author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Levin, Jesse; Brodziak de los Reyes, Iliana; Atchison, Drew; Manship, Karen; Arellanes, Melissa; Hu, Lynn
    Reference Type: Conference Paper, Report
    Year: 2018

    The need for costing-out studies is clear given the clauses found in virtually all state constitutions that dictate that the state has a responsibility to provide an education that is considered adequate, sufficient or some other term that represents a level that allows all students an opportunity to achieve the outcomes expected of the public education system. If states are to follow through on this obligation then it is necessary to understand both the amount of effort involved in terms the public funding required to offer educational sufficiency and how to appropriately distribute this funding. More formally stated, the main objectives of educational costing-out studies are to answer what have been referred to as the two fundamental questions of educational adequacy (Chambers & Levin, 2009): 

    • What does it cost to enable a public school system to provide all students with an adequate education?
    • How can state school finance systems allocate their resources equitably, such that all students are afforded an adequate education regardless of their need or...

    The need for costing-out studies is clear given the clauses found in virtually all state constitutions that dictate that the state has a responsibility to provide an education that is considered adequate, sufficient or some other term that represents a level that allows all students an opportunity to achieve the outcomes expected of the public education system. If states are to follow through on this obligation then it is necessary to understand both the amount of effort involved in terms the public funding required to offer educational sufficiency and how to appropriately distribute this funding. More formally stated, the main objectives of educational costing-out studies are to answer what have been referred to as the two fundamental questions of educational adequacy (Chambers & Levin, 2009): 

    • What does it cost to enable a public school system to provide all students with an adequate education?
    • How can state school finance systems allocate their resources equitably, such that all students are afforded an adequate education regardless of their need or circumstance?

    The proposed presentation will describe the results of a costing-out study for California that address the two fundamental questions put forth above. The study employed a Professional Judgement approach, which involved organizing panels of expert educators to develop efficient resource specifications necessary to provide students in a variety of school settings (i.e., varying with respect to grade range, student needs, and enrollment size) an opportunity to meet outcomes defined in the state’s accountability system. The resource specifications were then translated into cost figures using a Resource Cost Model (RCM), which calculates costs based upon an “ingredients” approach (Levin, 2017). The data is then used to model the adequate cost for all California public K-12 schools and districts. (Excerpt from author introduction)

  • Individual Author: Morgan, Paul L.; Farkas, George; Cook, Michael; Strassfeld, Natasha M.; Hillemeier, Marianne M.; Pun, Wik Hung; Wang, Yangyang; Schussler, Deborah L.
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2018

    We conducted a best-evidence synthesis of 22 studies to examine whether systemic bias explained minority disproportionate overrepresentation in special education. Of the total regression model estimates, only 7/168 (4.2%), 14/208 (6.7%), 2/37 (5.4%), and 6/91 (6.6%) indicated statistically significant overrepresentation for Hispanic, Asian, Native American, and English language learner (ELL) or language-minority children, respectively. Among studies with the strongest internal and external validity, none of the 90 estimates (i.e., 0%) indicated overrepresentation attributable to racial or ethnic bias. Of the 18 estimates for language-minority and ELL children combined, only 3 (16.7%) indicated overrepresentation attributable to language use. Two of the 4 ELL-specific estimates (50%) indicated that children receiving English-as-a-second-language services may be overrepresented in special education. Overall, and replicating findings from a prior best-evidence synthesis, this synthesis indicated that children are underidentified as having disabilities based on their race or...

    We conducted a best-evidence synthesis of 22 studies to examine whether systemic bias explained minority disproportionate overrepresentation in special education. Of the total regression model estimates, only 7/168 (4.2%), 14/208 (6.7%), 2/37 (5.4%), and 6/91 (6.6%) indicated statistically significant overrepresentation for Hispanic, Asian, Native American, and English language learner (ELL) or language-minority children, respectively. Among studies with the strongest internal and external validity, none of the 90 estimates (i.e., 0%) indicated overrepresentation attributable to racial or ethnic bias. Of the 18 estimates for language-minority and ELL children combined, only 3 (16.7%) indicated overrepresentation attributable to language use. Two of the 4 ELL-specific estimates (50%) indicated that children receiving English-as-a-second-language services may be overrepresented in special education. Overall, and replicating findings from a prior best-evidence synthesis, this synthesis indicated that children are underidentified as having disabilities based on their race or ethnicity and language use. (Author abstract)

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