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The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

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  • Individual Author: Wells, Christopher R. E.
    Reference Type: Thesis
    Year: 2009

    Workforce development programs seek to positively impact the employment and earnings of individuals who may face significant barriers to labor market success. In this paper, I measure the outcomes of several workforce development programs operating in Franklin County, Ohio, against three poverty thresholds: the 2007 United States Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) individual poverty guidelines, the 2007 HHS family of four poverty guidelines, and .6 of the median household income for Franklin County in 2007. The United Way of Central Ohio provided data on approximately 4685 program participants. The dataset included demographic characteristics, information on barriers to employment, hourly earnings, hours worked per week, and occupational classification. While the data do not include pre-program earnings or measures of long-term stability of employment, I attempt some inference with respect to the ability of these programs to place participants in jobs with estimated yearly earnings above the three poverty thresholds. Logistic and least squares regression models are...

    Workforce development programs seek to positively impact the employment and earnings of individuals who may face significant barriers to labor market success. In this paper, I measure the outcomes of several workforce development programs operating in Franklin County, Ohio, against three poverty thresholds: the 2007 United States Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) individual poverty guidelines, the 2007 HHS family of four poverty guidelines, and .6 of the median household income for Franklin County in 2007. The United Way of Central Ohio provided data on approximately 4685 program participants. The dataset included demographic characteristics, information on barriers to employment, hourly earnings, hours worked per week, and occupational classification. While the data do not include pre-program earnings or measures of long-term stability of employment, I attempt some inference with respect to the ability of these programs to place participants in jobs with estimated yearly earnings above the three poverty thresholds. Logistic and least squares regression models are created to explore relationships. Demographic characteristics and barriers to employment are found to have significant relationships to earnings. Presence of a criminal record and presence of a disability are found to be particularly strong barriers to earnings above poverty thresholds. This suggests that programmatic efforts may need to be more intensive and may require meaningful partnerships with employers in order to improve the earnings for these participants. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: U.S. Congress
    Reference Type: Statute
    Year: 2014

    This statute represents the first legislative reform of the public workforce system since the passage of the Workforce Investment Act of 1998.  It is designed to help job seekers access employment, education, training, and support services to succeed in the labor market and to match employers with the skilled workers they need to compete in the global economy.

     

    Public Law No. 113-128 (2014).

    This statute represents the first legislative reform of the public workforce system since the passage of the Workforce Investment Act of 1998.  It is designed to help job seekers access employment, education, training, and support services to succeed in the labor market and to match employers with the skilled workers they need to compete in the global economy.

     

    Public Law No. 113-128 (2014).

  • Individual Author: Clark, Robin E.; Dain, Bradley, J.; Xie, Haiyi; Becker, Deborah R.; Drake, Robert E.
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 1998

    Background: Policies and programs that emphasize employment for persons with mental illness are often promoted with the goals of improving economic self-sufficiency and reducing dependence on public welfare programs. At present, there is little empirical evidence about the actual effect of vocational interventions on economic self-sufficiency or on use of public benefits by persons with mental illness.
    
    Study Aims: This study provides a preliminary look at how participating in supported employment, a form of vocational rehabilitation emphasizing ongoing support in competitive jobs, affects the amount that participants earn from work and the total amount of income they receive from all sources. Further, we examine the extent to which receiving public benefits affects the amount earned from private employment, taking into consideration other factors that might be associated with benefit status.
    
    Methods: Data are from a randomized trial of supported employment interventions. This analysis followed 137 of those study...

    Background: Policies and programs that emphasize employment for persons with mental illness are often promoted with the goals of improving economic self-sufficiency and reducing dependence on public welfare programs. At present, there is little empirical evidence about the actual effect of vocational interventions on economic self-sufficiency or on use of public benefits by persons with mental illness.
    
    Study Aims: This study provides a preliminary look at how participating in supported employment, a form of vocational rehabilitation emphasizing ongoing support in competitive jobs, affects the amount that participants earn from work and the total amount of income they receive from all sources. Further, we examine the extent to which receiving public benefits affects the amount earned from private employment, taking into consideration other factors that might be associated with benefit status.
    
    Methods: Data are from a randomized trial of supported employment interventions. This analysis followed 137 of those study participants with severe mental illness for 18 months after they enrolled in either of two supported employment programs. Income from various sources was estimated based on interviews with study participants upon study entry and at six-month intervals thereafter. Changes in income from work, government and other sources were analyzed using paired Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-ranks tests and t-tests. Using ordinary least-squares regression, we analyzed the effect of benefit status on changes in earnings, taking into account diagnosis, work history, education, program type, site of program, psychiatric symptoms, global functioning and previous earnings.
    
    Results: Estimated total income increased by an average of $134 (US) per month after enrolling in supported employment. More than three-quarters of this increase was from government sources, such as Social Security and educational grants. The increase in government income was largely due to participants applying for and getting cash benefits for the first time. Social Security payments for those receiving benefits before enrollment did not change significantly. A small group of persons (n = 22) who did not receive Social Security benefits before or after enrollment earned significantly more from competitive employment after enrolling than did those who received benefits. This finding persisted after taking into account differences in work history, clinical and functional variables and education.
    
    Limitations: Because of the relatively small sample size and the lack of continuous measures of income these results should be considered preliminary.
    
    Conclusions: Supported employment, one of the more effective forms of vocational rehabilitation for persons with mental illness, did not reduce dependence on government support. Receiving government benefits was associated with lower earnings from work.
    
    Implications for Health Care Provision and Use: These findings suggest that most persons in treatment for severe mental illness need continued public financial support even after enrolling in vocational rehabilitation programs.
    
    Implications for Health Policy Formulation: Undoubtedly increased labor force participation can benefit persons with mental illness in a number of ways. However, policy makers should be careful about justifying increased access to vocational programs on the basis of reduced spending for income support. Further, targeting such programs only to persons receiving income support may overlook the clients who can benefit most: those who are not currently receiving benefits.
    
    Implications for Further Research: Policy makers need a better understanding of how vocational interventions and income support programs affect the income and well-being of persons with mental illness. Studies similar to this one should be repeated with larger, more diverse samples that will allow use of instrumental variables statistical techniques. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Martin, Emily S.; Pavetti, LaDonna; Kauff, Jacqueline
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2008

    Some TANF recipients may have disabilities that would qualify them for the specialized employment preparation services Vocational Rehabilitation (VR) agencies provide. TANF recipients may seek out VR services on their own, or be referred to VR by a TANF case manager on his or her own accord, however, because VR is an unfamiliar service system, few may be inclined to do so. Creating a formal partnership between the agencies can ensure that all TANF recipients who can benefit from VR services have access to them. Though linking the services of these two agencies through formal cooperative agreements is not a widespread strategy, some states have had such partnerships in place for many years and other states are developing them. This practice brief explores the benefits and challenges of linking TANF and VR services, describes partnerships that have been formed in Vermont and Iowa, then discusses key features that appear to be critical to developing a successful partnership. (author abstract)

    Some TANF recipients may have disabilities that would qualify them for the specialized employment preparation services Vocational Rehabilitation (VR) agencies provide. TANF recipients may seek out VR services on their own, or be referred to VR by a TANF case manager on his or her own accord, however, because VR is an unfamiliar service system, few may be inclined to do so. Creating a formal partnership between the agencies can ensure that all TANF recipients who can benefit from VR services have access to them. Though linking the services of these two agencies through formal cooperative agreements is not a widespread strategy, some states have had such partnerships in place for many years and other states are developing them. This practice brief explores the benefits and challenges of linking TANF and VR services, describes partnerships that have been formed in Vermont and Iowa, then discusses key features that appear to be critical to developing a successful partnership. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Bugarin, Alicia
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2001

    This report presents information on services, funding, clientele and program outcomes for 39 of California's job training, employment and vocational education programs. The information may be particularly useful as the Legislature considers the Governor's proposal to reorganize key employment programs. (publisher abstract)

    This report presents information on services, funding, clientele and program outcomes for 39 of California's job training, employment and vocational education programs. The information may be particularly useful as the Legislature considers the Governor's proposal to reorganize key employment programs. (publisher abstract)

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