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The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

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The SSRC Library collection is constantly growing and new research is added regularly. We welcome our users to submit a library item to help us grow our collection in response to your needs.


  • Individual Author: Mueller, Mike; Barden, Bret; Elkin, Sam; Farrell, Mary
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2007

    This report examines three related topics affecting participation and engagement in the Colorado Works program. They are: (1) Work participation activities and strategies; (2) Diversion policies among Colorado’s counties; and (3) Sanctioning practices observed in Colorado. The report’s findings are based primarily on three data sources: phone interviews conducted with 19 county Colorado Works directors during the spring and summer of 2007; program data from the Colorado Benefits Management System (CBMS) and from the Child Care Automated Tracking System (CHATS); and unemployment insurance (UI) wage records on employment and earnings. (Edited author executive summary)

    This report examines three related topics affecting participation and engagement in the Colorado Works program. They are: (1) Work participation activities and strategies; (2) Diversion policies among Colorado’s counties; and (3) Sanctioning practices observed in Colorado. The report’s findings are based primarily on three data sources: phone interviews conducted with 19 county Colorado Works directors during the spring and summer of 2007; program data from the Colorado Benefits Management System (CBMS) and from the Child Care Automated Tracking System (CHATS); and unemployment insurance (UI) wage records on employment and earnings. (Edited author executive summary)

  • Individual Author: Greenberg, David H.; Robins, Philip K.
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2011

    The authors examine data from 21 random assignment evaluations of 76 experimental welfare-to-work programs conducted in the United States between 1983 and 1998 to determine whether the impacts of these programs on employment improved over time. Welfare-to-work programs have long played an important role in the federal assistance program known as Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC), now called Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF). Over the 16-year period covered by the experiments, an increasing percentage of control group members received services similar to those offered to program group members. As a result, the differential participation in program service activities between the program and the control group decreased steadily over time, reducing the impact of these programs on employment. The negative influence of the reduced incremental services was nevertheless offset by other factors that resulted in program impacts remaining essentially constant during the study period. The authors suggest ways to improve program impacts in future experiments.(author...

    The authors examine data from 21 random assignment evaluations of 76 experimental welfare-to-work programs conducted in the United States between 1983 and 1998 to determine whether the impacts of these programs on employment improved over time. Welfare-to-work programs have long played an important role in the federal assistance program known as Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC), now called Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF). Over the 16-year period covered by the experiments, an increasing percentage of control group members received services similar to those offered to program group members. As a result, the differential participation in program service activities between the program and the control group decreased steadily over time, reducing the impact of these programs on employment. The negative influence of the reduced incremental services was nevertheless offset by other factors that resulted in program impacts remaining essentially constant during the study period. The authors suggest ways to improve program impacts in future experiments.(author abstract)

    This article was based on a working paper from the Institute for Research on Poverty at the University of Wisconsin.

  • Individual Author: Kim, Jeounghee; Joo, Myungkook
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2009

    How much did single mothers on Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) work after welfare reform? Has their work participation stopped increasing recently? Since the U.S. Federal Government established mandatory work requirements for most TANF recipients and minimum annual work participation rates for States in the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA) of 1996, welfare recipients' participation in work-related activities became the central issue among both policymakers and researchers. Under the law, an adult TANF recipient generally is required to participate in "core" and "supplementary" work activities for at least 30 hours per week. In response to PRWORA's requirement that recipients participate in work-related activities, there was a dramatic increase in adult welfare recipients' work activities, and the share of adults on Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) or TANF who were engaged in work-related activities for at least 1 hour per week in a typical month rose from 22.4 percent in 1996 to 43.1 percent in 2001. Many...

    How much did single mothers on Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) work after welfare reform? Has their work participation stopped increasing recently? Since the U.S. Federal Government established mandatory work requirements for most TANF recipients and minimum annual work participation rates for States in the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA) of 1996, welfare recipients' participation in work-related activities became the central issue among both policymakers and researchers. Under the law, an adult TANF recipient generally is required to participate in "core" and "supplementary" work activities for at least 30 hours per week. In response to PRWORA's requirement that recipients participate in work-related activities, there was a dramatic increase in adult welfare recipients' work activities, and the share of adults on Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) or TANF who were engaged in work-related activities for at least 1 hour per week in a typical month rose from 22.4 percent in 1996 to 43.1 percent in 2001. Many supporters of welfare reform viewed this increase in work participation as strong evidence of the success of PRWORA. In 2002, however, the weekly work participation rate decreased to 41.7 percent and then went to 41.2 percent in 2003 as the country's economy struggled to recover from the 2001 recession.

    This study finds that when consistent measures are used to calculate data on paid employment and other work-related activities of single mothers on TANF, the resulting rates of employment and participation in work-related activities are higher than those initially reported. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Bartik, Timothy J.
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 1998

    Will welfare reform increase unemployment and reduce wages? The answer depends in part on how much welfare reform increases labor supply. This paper considers the labor supply effects of the welfare reforms that have occurred since 1993, when President Clinton entered office with a promise to "end welfare as we know it." The paper reviews previous estimates, and provides new estimates, of how many additional labor force participants have entered the labor force due to welfare reform. I estimate that welfare reform from 1993-96 increased the U.S. labor force by between 100,000 and 300,000 persons. Between 1996, when the major federal welfare reform bill was enacted, and 1998, welfare reform has probably increased the U.S. labor force by at least another 300,000 persons. Assuming current policy trends continue, welfare reform may add another half-million to one-million labor force participants between 1998 and 2005. The cumulative impact of welfare reform from 1993-2005 is likely to add between one and one-and-a-half million persons to the U.S. labor force. This additional labor...

    Will welfare reform increase unemployment and reduce wages? The answer depends in part on how much welfare reform increases labor supply. This paper considers the labor supply effects of the welfare reforms that have occurred since 1993, when President Clinton entered office with a promise to "end welfare as we know it." The paper reviews previous estimates, and provides new estimates, of how many additional labor force participants have entered the labor force due to welfare reform. I estimate that welfare reform from 1993-96 increased the U.S. labor force by between 100,000 and 300,000 persons. Between 1996, when the major federal welfare reform bill was enacted, and 1998, welfare reform has probably increased the U.S. labor force by at least another 300,000 persons. Assuming current policy trends continue, welfare reform may add another half-million to one-million labor force participants between 1998 and 2005. The cumulative impact of welfare reform from 1993-2005 is likely to add between one and one-and-a-half million persons to the U.S. labor force. This additional labor supply is not huge compared to the U.S. labor force, so welfare reform is unlikely to have large long-run effects on overall wages and unemployment. However, this additional labor supply is large compared to likely growth in labor demand for less-educated women over the 1993-2005 period. As a result, welfare reform is likely to have significant effects on the wages and unemployment rates of less-educated women during the 1993-2005 period. (Author abstract)