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The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

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  • Individual Author: Dunham, Kate; Betesh, Hannah
    Reference Type: Conference Paper
    Year: 2015

    With a growing need for a more skilled workforce, providing effective and efficient employment and training services is an important national priority. We provide an overview of two of the largest initiatives seeking to provide these services in the United States: the Adult and Dislocated Worker programs. The programs provide similar services—including information on job search and high-demand occupations, assistance from employment counselors, and funding for training—and differ mainly in whether they focus on low-income individuals or workers who have become unemployed due to local economic conditions. We describe the programs as they operated under the Workforce Investment Act (WIA) of 1998 and how they evolved when the Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act (WIOA) superseded WIA in 2015. (Author abstract)

    With a growing need for a more skilled workforce, providing effective and efficient employment and training services is an important national priority. We provide an overview of two of the largest initiatives seeking to provide these services in the United States: the Adult and Dislocated Worker programs. The programs provide similar services—including information on job search and high-demand occupations, assistance from employment counselors, and funding for training—and differ mainly in whether they focus on low-income individuals or workers who have become unemployed due to local economic conditions. We describe the programs as they operated under the Workforce Investment Act (WIA) of 1998 and how they evolved when the Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act (WIOA) superseded WIA in 2015. (Author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Flanagan, Constance; Levine, Peter
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2010

    Constance Flanagan and Peter Levine survey research on civic engagement among U.S. adolescents and young adults. Civic engagement, they say, is important both for the functioning of democracies and for the growth and maturation it encourages in young adults, but opportunities for civic engagement are not evenly distributed by social class or race and ethnicity.

    Today’s young adults, note the authors, are less likely than those in earlier generations to exhibit many important characteristics of citizenship, raising the question of whether these differences represent a decline or simply a delay in traditional adult patterns of civic engagement. Flanagan and Levine also briefly discuss the civic and political lives of immigrant youth in the United States, noting that because these youth make up a significant share of the current generation of young adults, their civic engagement is an important barometer of the future of democracy.

    The authors next survey differences in civic participation for youth from different social, racial, and ethnic backgrounds. They explore...

    Constance Flanagan and Peter Levine survey research on civic engagement among U.S. adolescents and young adults. Civic engagement, they say, is important both for the functioning of democracies and for the growth and maturation it encourages in young adults, but opportunities for civic engagement are not evenly distributed by social class or race and ethnicity.

    Today’s young adults, note the authors, are less likely than those in earlier generations to exhibit many important characteristics of citizenship, raising the question of whether these differences represent a decline or simply a delay in traditional adult patterns of civic engagement. Flanagan and Levine also briefly discuss the civic and political lives of immigrant youth in the United States, noting that because these youth make up a significant share of the current generation of young adults, their civic engagement is an important barometer of the future of democracy.

    The authors next survey differences in civic participation for youth from different social, racial, and ethnic backgrounds. They explore two sets of factors that contribute to a lower rate of civic engagement among low-income and minority young adults. The first is cumulative disadvantage—unequal opportunities and influences before adulthood, especially parental education. The second is different institutional opportunities for civic engagement among college and non- college youth during the young-adult years. Flanagan and Levine survey various settings where young adults spend time—schools and colleges, community organizations, faith-based institutions, community organizing and activism projects, and military and other voluntary service programs—and examine the opportunities for civic engagement that each affords.

    As the transition to adulthood has lengthened, say the authors, colleges have become perhaps the central institution for civic incorporation of younger generations. But no comparable institution exists for young adults who do not attend college. Opportunities for sustained civic engagement by year-long programs such as City Year could provide an alternative opportunity for civic engagement for young adults from disadvantaged families, allowing them to stay connected to mainstream opportunities and to adults who could mentor and guide their way. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Meyer, Bruce D.; Rosenbaum, Dan T.
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2001

    During 1984-96 there were enormous changes in welfare and tax policy. In particular, there were large; expansions of the Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) and Medicaid, changes in the Aid to Families with Dependent; Children (AFDC) program and related training and child care programs. Many of the program changes were intended to; encourage low income women to work. During this same time period there were unprecedented increases in the; employment of single mothers, particularly those with young children. In this paper, we first document these large; changes in policies and employment. We then examine if the policy changes are the reason for the large increases in; single mothers’ employment. We find evidence that a large share of the increase in work by single mothers can be; attributed to the EITC, with smaller shares for welfare benefit reductions, welfare waivers, changes in training programs,; and child care expansions. Our results also indicate that financial incentives through the tax and welfare systems have; substantial effects on single mothers’ employment decisions. (...

    During 1984-96 there were enormous changes in welfare and tax policy. In particular, there were large; expansions of the Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) and Medicaid, changes in the Aid to Families with Dependent; Children (AFDC) program and related training and child care programs. Many of the program changes were intended to; encourage low income women to work. During this same time period there were unprecedented increases in the; employment of single mothers, particularly those with young children. In this paper, we first document these large; changes in policies and employment. We then examine if the policy changes are the reason for the large increases in; single mothers’ employment. We find evidence that a large share of the increase in work by single mothers can be; attributed to the EITC, with smaller shares for welfare benefit reductions, welfare waivers, changes in training programs,; and child care expansions. Our results also indicate that financial incentives through the tax and welfare systems have; substantial effects on single mothers’ employment decisions. (Author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Denny-Brown, Noelle; Livermore, Gina; Shenk, Marisa; Morris, Eric
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2018

    The SourceAmerica Pathways to Careers™ (Pathways) initiative relies upon state-of-the-art employment strategies to enable people with significant disabilities to have an informed choice of competitive, integrated, full-wage employment options that match their individual skills, interests, and abilities. In this report, we document the activities of the pilot Pathways project in Utah and the experiences of participants from the time this pilot project launched in May 2012 through December 2016, the fourth full year of implementation. During that time, the project enrolled 91 participants. This is the third of four primary reports that will describe the findings of the Pathways evaluation. The evaluation findings presented in this report are based on information collected from the project management information system; participant applications and follow-up surveys conducted 12 and 24 months after intake; and in-person interviews with staff and employers participating in the pilot Pathways project in Utah. We also analyzed project cost information and data on how Pathways staff in...

    The SourceAmerica Pathways to Careers™ (Pathways) initiative relies upon state-of-the-art employment strategies to enable people with significant disabilities to have an informed choice of competitive, integrated, full-wage employment options that match their individual skills, interests, and abilities. In this report, we document the activities of the pilot Pathways project in Utah and the experiences of participants from the time this pilot project launched in May 2012 through December 2016, the fourth full year of implementation. During that time, the project enrolled 91 participants. This is the third of four primary reports that will describe the findings of the Pathways evaluation. The evaluation findings presented in this report are based on information collected from the project management information system; participant applications and follow-up surveys conducted 12 and 24 months after intake; and in-person interviews with staff and employers participating in the pilot Pathways project in Utah. We also analyzed project cost information and data on how Pathways staff in the pilot project spend their time across various Pathways and non-Pathways activities. (Author abstract)

     

  • Individual Author: Burchinal, Margaret; Vernon-Feagans, Lynne; Vitiello, Virginia; Greenberg, Mark; The Family Life Project Key Investigators
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2014

    This study examined whether a minimum level of preschool quality (threshold) is needed in order for a relationship to exist between preschool quality and children's academic, behavioral, and working memory in a sample of children from low-wealth rural communities where quality child care has been found to be lower than more urban communities. Participants included 849 children from two high-poverty, rural regions. Preschool quality was rated using the CLASS observational measure. Child outcomes included direct assessments of early language, mathematics, and working memory, as well as teacher ratings of attention, emotion regulation, problem behaviors, and peer relationships. Analyses included piecewise regression analyses that tested a priori specified cut-points and flexible b-spline analyses that tested for thresholds empirically. Results indicated some evidence for quality thresholds, suggesting that quality was related to children's behavioral outcomes above, but not below, a cut-point. Language, literacy, and working memory did not show evidence of threshold effects....

    This study examined whether a minimum level of preschool quality (threshold) is needed in order for a relationship to exist between preschool quality and children's academic, behavioral, and working memory in a sample of children from low-wealth rural communities where quality child care has been found to be lower than more urban communities. Participants included 849 children from two high-poverty, rural regions. Preschool quality was rated using the CLASS observational measure. Child outcomes included direct assessments of early language, mathematics, and working memory, as well as teacher ratings of attention, emotion regulation, problem behaviors, and peer relationships. Analyses included piecewise regression analyses that tested a priori specified cut-points and flexible b-spline analyses that tested for thresholds empirically. Results indicated some evidence for quality thresholds, suggesting that quality was related to children's behavioral outcomes above, but not below, a cut-point. Language, literacy, and working memory did not show evidence of threshold effects. Results are discussed in the context of prior mixed evidence for child care quality thresholds in other samples of predominantly low-income preschoolers in center-based child care in more urban areas. (Author abstract)

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