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The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

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  • Individual Author: Early, Diane M.; Maxwell, Kelly L.; Burchinal, Margaret; Alva, Soumya; Bender, Randall H. ; Bryant, Donna ; Cai, Karen ; Clifford, Richard M. ; Ebanks, Caroline ; Griffin, James A. ; Henry, Gary T. ; Howes, Carrollee ; Iriondo-Perez, Jeniffer ; Jeon, Hyun-Joo ; Mashburn, Andrew J. ; Peisner-Feinberg, Ellen ; Pianta, Robert C. ; Vandergrift, Nathan ; Zill, Nicholas
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2007

    In an effort to provide high-quality preschool education, policymakers are increasingly requiring public preschool teachers to have at least a Bachelor's degree, preferably in early childhood education. Seven major studies of early care and education were used to predict classroom quality and children's academic outcomes from the educational attainment and major of teachers of 4-year-olds. The findings indicate largely null or contradictory associations, indicating that policies focused solely on increasing teachers' education will not suffice for improving classroom quality or maximizing children's academic gains. Instead, raising the effectiveness of early childhood education likely will require a broad range of professional development activities and supports targeted toward teachers' interactions with children. (Author abstract)

    In an effort to provide high-quality preschool education, policymakers are increasingly requiring public preschool teachers to have at least a Bachelor's degree, preferably in early childhood education. Seven major studies of early care and education were used to predict classroom quality and children's academic outcomes from the educational attainment and major of teachers of 4-year-olds. The findings indicate largely null or contradictory associations, indicating that policies focused solely on increasing teachers' education will not suffice for improving classroom quality or maximizing children's academic gains. Instead, raising the effectiveness of early childhood education likely will require a broad range of professional development activities and supports targeted toward teachers' interactions with children. (Author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Flanagan, Constance; Levine, Peter
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2010

    Constance Flanagan and Peter Levine survey research on civic engagement among U.S. adolescents and young adults. Civic engagement, they say, is important both for the functioning of democracies and for the growth and maturation it encourages in young adults, but opportunities for civic engagement are not evenly distributed by social class or race and ethnicity.

    Today’s young adults, note the authors, are less likely than those in earlier generations to exhibit many important characteristics of citizenship, raising the question of whether these differences represent a decline or simply a delay in traditional adult patterns of civic engagement. Flanagan and Levine also briefly discuss the civic and political lives of immigrant youth in the United States, noting that because these youth make up a significant share of the current generation of young adults, their civic engagement is an important barometer of the future of democracy.

    The authors next survey differences in civic participation for youth from different social, racial, and ethnic backgrounds. They explore...

    Constance Flanagan and Peter Levine survey research on civic engagement among U.S. adolescents and young adults. Civic engagement, they say, is important both for the functioning of democracies and for the growth and maturation it encourages in young adults, but opportunities for civic engagement are not evenly distributed by social class or race and ethnicity.

    Today’s young adults, note the authors, are less likely than those in earlier generations to exhibit many important characteristics of citizenship, raising the question of whether these differences represent a decline or simply a delay in traditional adult patterns of civic engagement. Flanagan and Levine also briefly discuss the civic and political lives of immigrant youth in the United States, noting that because these youth make up a significant share of the current generation of young adults, their civic engagement is an important barometer of the future of democracy.

    The authors next survey differences in civic participation for youth from different social, racial, and ethnic backgrounds. They explore two sets of factors that contribute to a lower rate of civic engagement among low-income and minority young adults. The first is cumulative disadvantage—unequal opportunities and influences before adulthood, especially parental education. The second is different institutional opportunities for civic engagement among college and non- college youth during the young-adult years. Flanagan and Levine survey various settings where young adults spend time—schools and colleges, community organizations, faith-based institutions, community organizing and activism projects, and military and other voluntary service programs—and examine the opportunities for civic engagement that each affords.

    As the transition to adulthood has lengthened, say the authors, colleges have become perhaps the central institution for civic incorporation of younger generations. But no comparable institution exists for young adults who do not attend college. Opportunities for sustained civic engagement by year-long programs such as City Year could provide an alternative opportunity for civic engagement for young adults from disadvantaged families, allowing them to stay connected to mainstream opportunities and to adults who could mentor and guide their way. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Johnson, Rucker C.; Kalil, Ariel; Dunifon, Rachel E.
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2012

    Using data from five waves of the Women’s Employment Survey (WES; 1997–2003), we examine the links between low-income mothers’ employment patterns and the emotional behavior and academic progress of their children. We find robust and substantively important linkages between several different dimensions of mothers’ employment experiences and child outcomes. The pattern of results is similar across empirical approaches-including ordinary least squares and child fixed-effect models, with and without an extensive set of controls. Children exhibit fewer behavior problems when mothers work and experience job stability (relative to children whose mothers do not work). In contrast, maternal work accompanied by job instability is associated with significantly higher child behavior problems (relative to employment in a stable job). Children whose mothers work full-time and/or have fluctuating work schedules also exhibit significantly higher levels of behavior problems. However, full-time work has negative consequences for children only when it is in jobs that do not require cognitive...

    Using data from five waves of the Women’s Employment Survey (WES; 1997–2003), we examine the links between low-income mothers’ employment patterns and the emotional behavior and academic progress of their children. We find robust and substantively important linkages between several different dimensions of mothers’ employment experiences and child outcomes. The pattern of results is similar across empirical approaches-including ordinary least squares and child fixed-effect models, with and without an extensive set of controls. Children exhibit fewer behavior problems when mothers work and experience job stability (relative to children whose mothers do not work). In contrast, maternal work accompanied by job instability is associated with significantly higher child behavior problems (relative to employment in a stable job). Children whose mothers work full-time and/or have fluctuating work schedules also exhibit significantly higher levels of behavior problems. However, full-time work has negative consequences for children only when it is in jobs that do not require cognitive skills. Such negative consequences are completely offset when this work experience is in jobs that require the cognitive skills that lead to higher wage growth prospects. Finally, fluctuating work schedules and full-time work in non-cognitively demanding jobs are each strongly associated with the probability that the child will repeat a grade or be placed in special education. (author abstract)

    This article was originally based on the working paper published by the University of Michigan National Poverty Center: https://www.opressrc.org/content/work-after-welfare-reform-and-well-bein....

  • Individual Author: Côté, Sylvana M.; Mongeau, Chantal; Japel, Christa; Xu, Qian; Séguin, Jean R.; Tremblay, Richard E.
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2013

    The associations between trajectories of child care quality from ages 2 to 4 years and children's cognitive performance at 4 years (n = 250) were tested. Distinct quality trajectories were identified: low and high ascending Teaching and Interactions trajectory; low and high Provision for Learning trajectory. Membership in the high ascending Teaching and Interactions trajectory was associated with better numeracy (effect size [ES] = .39, confidence interval [CI] = .21–.66), receptive vocabulary (ES = .41, CI = .14–.68), and school readiness (ES = .32, CI = .06–.58). The results suggest that a pattern of increasing quality of teacher–child interactions during the preschool years, particularly with regard to supporting the development of language, has a moderate impact on children's cognitive development. (Author abstract)

    The associations between trajectories of child care quality from ages 2 to 4 years and children's cognitive performance at 4 years (n = 250) were tested. Distinct quality trajectories were identified: low and high ascending Teaching and Interactions trajectory; low and high Provision for Learning trajectory. Membership in the high ascending Teaching and Interactions trajectory was associated with better numeracy (effect size [ES] = .39, confidence interval [CI] = .21–.66), receptive vocabulary (ES = .41, CI = .14–.68), and school readiness (ES = .32, CI = .06–.58). The results suggest that a pattern of increasing quality of teacher–child interactions during the preschool years, particularly with regard to supporting the development of language, has a moderate impact on children's cognitive development. (Author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Coley, Rebekah Levine; Spielvogel, Bryn; Kull, Melissa
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2019

    Economic inequality and ensuing economic stratification in educational and community contexts are growing in the United States. Given these patterns, it is essential to understand the implications of economic stratification in early education settings. This paper delineates repercussions of the concentration of poor children in preschool programs using lagged structural equation models estimated in two longitudinal studies following 3396 4-year-old children in 486 primarily publicly-funded preschool classrooms through kindergarten entrance. Concentrated poverty in preschool classrooms was associated with lower language and reading skills in kindergarten in part through children's exposure to less cognitively-skilled peers, with teacher instructional quality not serving as a reliable mediator. These associations did not emerge in relation to children's math skills. Results expand conceptual models of peer effects and inform preschool policies which seek to increase quality and equity and enhance children's learning. (Author abstract)

    Economic inequality and ensuing economic stratification in educational and community contexts are growing in the United States. Given these patterns, it is essential to understand the implications of economic stratification in early education settings. This paper delineates repercussions of the concentration of poor children in preschool programs using lagged structural equation models estimated in two longitudinal studies following 3396 4-year-old children in 486 primarily publicly-funded preschool classrooms through kindergarten entrance. Concentrated poverty in preschool classrooms was associated with lower language and reading skills in kindergarten in part through children's exposure to less cognitively-skilled peers, with teacher instructional quality not serving as a reliable mediator. These associations did not emerge in relation to children's math skills. Results expand conceptual models of peer effects and inform preschool policies which seek to increase quality and equity and enhance children's learning. (Author abstract)

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