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The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

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The SSRC Library collection is constantly growing and new research is added regularly. We welcome our users to submit a library item to help us grow our collection in response to your needs.


  • Individual Author: Strawn, Julie
    Reference Type: Stakeholder Resource
    Year: 2018

    SNAP E&T and State and local workforce agencies share a common goal of helping low-income individuals gain the skills necessary to qualify for jobs leading to self-sufficiency. A March 2016 joint letter issued by the Department of Agriculture’s Food and Nutrition Service (FNS) and the Department of Labor’s (DOL) Employment and Training Administration (ETA) encouraged SNAP and the workforce system to collaborate on shared strategies that connect SNAP participants to employment and training services through American Job Centers (AJCs). In particular, the letter emphasized ways to provide services to Able-Bodied Adults without Dependents (ABAWDs). (Author introduction)

    SNAP E&T and State and local workforce agencies share a common goal of helping low-income individuals gain the skills necessary to qualify for jobs leading to self-sufficiency. A March 2016 joint letter issued by the Department of Agriculture’s Food and Nutrition Service (FNS) and the Department of Labor’s (DOL) Employment and Training Administration (ETA) encouraged SNAP and the workforce system to collaborate on shared strategies that connect SNAP participants to employment and training services through American Job Centers (AJCs). In particular, the letter emphasized ways to provide services to Able-Bodied Adults without Dependents (ABAWDs). (Author introduction)

  • Individual Author: DeRenzis, Brooke; Kaz, David
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2016

    Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Employment and Training (SNAP E&T), a federal program administered by the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Food and Nutrition Services (FNS), supports employment and training activities to increase self-sufficiency for SNAP participants. SNAP E&T can expand opportunities for low-income people to enhance their skills, credentials, careers, and ultimately, their families'; financial well-being. Yet few states have fully realized SNAP E&T's potential to provide skill-building opportunities. In fact, many states are leaving federal SNAP E&T dollars on the table, which could instead be used to provide education, training, and support services.

    In 2015, National Skills Coalition (NSC) and Seattle Jobs Initiative (SJI) partnered to help four states expand skills-based SNAP E&T programs. This policy brief shares recommendations for states based on lessons learned from our work with Connecticut, Iowa, Maryland, and Oregon. Specifically, this brief makes the following recommendations for those looking to expand skills-...

    Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Employment and Training (SNAP E&T), a federal program administered by the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Food and Nutrition Services (FNS), supports employment and training activities to increase self-sufficiency for SNAP participants. SNAP E&T can expand opportunities for low-income people to enhance their skills, credentials, careers, and ultimately, their families'; financial well-being. Yet few states have fully realized SNAP E&T's potential to provide skill-building opportunities. In fact, many states are leaving federal SNAP E&T dollars on the table, which could instead be used to provide education, training, and support services.

    In 2015, National Skills Coalition (NSC) and Seattle Jobs Initiative (SJI) partnered to help four states expand skills-based SNAP E&T programs. This policy brief shares recommendations for states based on lessons learned from our work with Connecticut, Iowa, Maryland, and Oregon. Specifically, this brief makes the following recommendations for those looking to expand skills-based SNAP E&T programs at the state level:

    • Staff and stakeholders should work with SNAP E&T agency leadership to develop a vision for a skills-focused program and implement a strategy to achieve that vision.

    • States should use pilot programs to test and refine strategies for expanding SNAP E&T programs.

    • SNAP E&T programs should build on the strengths and experience of existing workforce development efforts, and should align SNAP E&T with other programs, such as the Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act (WIOA) and Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF).

    • SNAP E&T programs should use federal funding and administrative tools to partner with community colleges and community-based organizations as service providers.

    The brief also identifies a set of common challenges in developing skills-based SNAP E&T programs and makes recommendations for how state SNAP E&T agencies can address them. (Author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Cavadel, Elizabeth W.; Kauff, Jacqueline F. ; Anderson, Mary Anne ; McConnell, Sheena M.; Derr, Michelle
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2017

    Researchers, policymakers, and practitioners are increasingly interested in the role that self-regulation may play in the ability of people to obtain and maintain employment. This interest is motivated by findings from three broad strands of research. First, research suggests self-regulation is necessary for goal setting and goal pursuit, which in turn foster positive outcomes across a variety of contexts (Deci and Ryan 2000). Second, there is growing evidence that the conditions associated with poverty can hinder the development and/or use of self-regulation skills (Mullainathan and Shafir 2013). Third, there is suggestive evidence that self-regulation skills continue to develop and improve in adulthood (Blair and Raver 2015). The report defines self-regulation and the specific self-regulation skills that may be most relevant for attaining employment-related goals. It describes how the development and use of self-regulation skills may be hindered by environmental factors, such as poverty as well as how these skills may be strengthened through interventions and strategies that...

    Researchers, policymakers, and practitioners are increasingly interested in the role that self-regulation may play in the ability of people to obtain and maintain employment. This interest is motivated by findings from three broad strands of research. First, research suggests self-regulation is necessary for goal setting and goal pursuit, which in turn foster positive outcomes across a variety of contexts (Deci and Ryan 2000). Second, there is growing evidence that the conditions associated with poverty can hinder the development and/or use of self-regulation skills (Mullainathan and Shafir 2013). Third, there is suggestive evidence that self-regulation skills continue to develop and improve in adulthood (Blair and Raver 2015). The report defines self-regulation and the specific self-regulation skills that may be most relevant for attaining employment-related goals. It describes how the development and use of self-regulation skills may be hindered by environmental factors, such as poverty as well as how these skills may be strengthened through interventions and strategies that have been successful in other contexts. In addition, the report provides examples of employment programs that have incorporated interventions focused on self-regulation and goal attainment and discusses the importance and challenges of measuring the success of such interventions. (Author introduction)

  • Individual Author: Tucker, Jo B.
    Reference Type: Thesis
    Year: 2005

    This case study investigated eight welfare recipients and their perceptions of the effectiveness of the job training programs in which they participated in an effort to understand the domains in which welfare-reliant individuals exhibit a commitment to work. Specific issues addressed by this qualitative study included the individuals’ perceptions of (1) the program effects on escaping poverty and becoming self-sufficient; (2) the impact of the program focus on the participants’ achievement and empowerment; (3) employment and the prospects of getting off welfare, both before and after program completion; and (4) recommendations for improvement in designing such programs. It is clear that all participants in the study found resolution to the tensions in their lives through the programs. Life skills training was critical in enhancing the self-esteem of the participants, providing them the tools necessary to overcome their fear of independence and allowing them to experience their own definition of success. Each participant in the study wished for more time in the program. Most...

    This case study investigated eight welfare recipients and their perceptions of the effectiveness of the job training programs in which they participated in an effort to understand the domains in which welfare-reliant individuals exhibit a commitment to work. Specific issues addressed by this qualitative study included the individuals’ perceptions of (1) the program effects on escaping poverty and becoming self-sufficient; (2) the impact of the program focus on the participants’ achievement and empowerment; (3) employment and the prospects of getting off welfare, both before and after program completion; and (4) recommendations for improvement in designing such programs. It is clear that all participants in the study found resolution to the tensions in their lives through the programs. Life skills training was critical in enhancing the self-esteem of the participants, providing them the tools necessary to overcome their fear of independence and allowing them to experience their own definition of success. Each participant in the study wished for more time in the program. Most participants felt the
    program was a gift and verbalized the value of supportive services on-site. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Schwartz, Amy Ellen; Leos-Urbel, Jacob; Silander, Megan; Wiswall, Matt
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2014

    Holding a summer job is a rite of passage in American adolescence, a first rung towards adulthood and self-sufficiency. However, over the past decade, youth employment during the summer has decreased significantly. Summer youth employment has the potential to benefit high school students’ educational outcomes and employment trajectories, especially for low-income youth. Despite the potential importance of youth employment during summer, evidence of the impact of summer jobs on youth outcomes is limited to only a few studies. This research examines summer youth employment, beginning with academic outcomes, by studying New York City’s Summer Youth Employment Program (SYEP). SYEP provides jobs to youth ages 14-24, and due to high demand for summer jobs, allocates slots through a random lottery system, allowing for causal estimates of program impact. The present study uses student-level data from the New York City Department of Youth and Community Development (the SYEP administrating agency) and New York City Department of Education, encompassing approximately 300,000 student SYEP...

    Holding a summer job is a rite of passage in American adolescence, a first rung towards adulthood and self-sufficiency. However, over the past decade, youth employment during the summer has decreased significantly. Summer youth employment has the potential to benefit high school students’ educational outcomes and employment trajectories, especially for low-income youth. Despite the potential importance of youth employment during summer, evidence of the impact of summer jobs on youth outcomes is limited to only a few studies. This research examines summer youth employment, beginning with academic outcomes, by studying New York City’s Summer Youth Employment Program (SYEP). SYEP provides jobs to youth ages 14-24, and due to high demand for summer jobs, allocates slots through a random lottery system, allowing for causal estimates of program impact. The present study uses student-level data from the New York City Department of Youth and Community Development (the SYEP administrating agency) and New York City Department of Education, encompassing approximately 300,000 student SYEP applicants for the 2005-2009 program years. This paper examines the impact of SYEP on a wider range of academic performance outcomes, including test taking, passing rates and scores. It also attends to variation in these outcomes. Findings suggest that SYEP has positive impacts on some student academic outcomes, and that these effects are heterogeneous. Future analyses will focus on examining program, student and school characteristics that might explain these variations. (author abstract) 

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