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  • Individual Author: Redcross, Cindy; Barden, Bret; Bloom, Dan
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2016

    This report presents interim impact and implementation findings of seven transitional jobs programs from the U.S. Department of Labor’s Enhanced Transitional Jobs Demonstration. Two of the sites in that study — in Atlanta and San Francisco — are also a part of ACF’s Subsidized and Transitional Employment Demonstration. The two studies closely coordinated beyond the shared sites, including shared reports, common data collection instruments, and other ongoing collaboration.

    The report shares early results in the areas of implementation, employment outcomes, recidivism, and child support payment.

    Early results include:

    • The Enhanced Transitional Jobs Demonstration programs were relatively well implemented.
    • All but one of the programs generated large increases in employment in the early months of follow-up; however, these increases were mostly or entirely the result of the transitional jobs and faded as participants left those jobs.
    • Two of the three programs targeting people recently released from prison appear to have reduced recidivism....

    This report presents interim impact and implementation findings of seven transitional jobs programs from the U.S. Department of Labor’s Enhanced Transitional Jobs Demonstration. Two of the sites in that study — in Atlanta and San Francisco — are also a part of ACF’s Subsidized and Transitional Employment Demonstration. The two studies closely coordinated beyond the shared sites, including shared reports, common data collection instruments, and other ongoing collaboration.

    The report shares early results in the areas of implementation, employment outcomes, recidivism, and child support payment.

    Early results include:

    • The Enhanced Transitional Jobs Demonstration programs were relatively well implemented.
    • All but one of the programs generated large increases in employment in the early months of follow-up; however, these increases were mostly or entirely the result of the transitional jobs and faded as participants left those jobs.
    • Two of the three programs targeting people recently released from prison appear to have reduced recidivism.
    • Most programs increased payment of child support. (Author abstract)

     

  • Individual Author: Walter, Johanna; Navarro, David; Anderson, Chloe; Tso, Ada
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2017

    Securing unsubsidized employment in a competitive labor market can be difficult for low-income job seekers in an economy that is increasingly driven by highly skilled technical and professional employment. This is particularly the case in San Francisco, whose tech boom has received national attention for dramatically, but unevenly, affecting the city’s economic landscape. San Francisco has a scarcity of opportunities for individuals who are less educated or lack the higher skills required by the jobs that have driven the economy’s growth. More than ever, securing stable employment is a must for lower-income workers in both San Francisco and the United States at large. While subsidized jobs can be designed to teach participants basic work skills, give them work experience that can be used on future résumés, or help them get a foot in the door with employers, past research has found mixed results regarding these programs’ ability to affect participants’ employment rates or earnings in the long term. The STEP Forward program attempted to address these issues by offering job seekers...

    Securing unsubsidized employment in a competitive labor market can be difficult for low-income job seekers in an economy that is increasingly driven by highly skilled technical and professional employment. This is particularly the case in San Francisco, whose tech boom has received national attention for dramatically, but unevenly, affecting the city’s economic landscape. San Francisco has a scarcity of opportunities for individuals who are less educated or lack the higher skills required by the jobs that have driven the economy’s growth. More than ever, securing stable employment is a must for lower-income workers in both San Francisco and the United States at large. While subsidized jobs can be designed to teach participants basic work skills, give them work experience that can be used on future résumés, or help them get a foot in the door with employers, past research has found mixed results regarding these programs’ ability to affect participants’ employment rates or earnings in the long term. The STEP Forward program attempted to address these issues by offering job seekers opportunities to interview for jobs with private sector employers at weekly job fairs, and by offering employers temporary wage subsidies to encourage them to try out job seekers whom they might not otherwise hire, with the goal of ultimately hiring these works into permanent unsubsidized employment. A diverse group of low-income job seekers enrolled in the program, the vast majority of whom were either CalWORKs (California’s Temporary Assistance for Needy Families program) clients, individuals who had exhausted their unemployment insurance benefits, or CalFresh (California’s Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program) recipients. (Author abstract) 

  • Individual Author: Blackwell, Wendy; Braswell, Kenneth; Doar, Robert; Klein Vogel, Lisa; Scott, Mindy
    Reference Type: Conference Paper
    Year: 2018

    Can researchers and practitioners reverse the trend of low labor force participation among working-age men? This panel discussion highlighted a range of policy options, implementation findings from a study on employment services for noncustodial parents, and how the National Responsible Fatherhood Clearinghouse supports practitioners to develop workforce development activities in responsible fatherhood programs. Kenneth Braswell (Fathers Incorporated) moderated the session and Wendy Blackwell (Center for Urban Families) served as the discussant. Various methodologies were used across the presentations. (Author introduction)

    Can researchers and practitioners reverse the trend of low labor force participation among working-age men? This panel discussion highlighted a range of policy options, implementation findings from a study on employment services for noncustodial parents, and how the National Responsible Fatherhood Clearinghouse supports practitioners to develop workforce development activities in responsible fatherhood programs. Kenneth Braswell (Fathers Incorporated) moderated the session and Wendy Blackwell (Center for Urban Families) served as the discussant. Various methodologies were used across the presentations. (Author introduction)

  • Individual Author: Zaslow, Martha J. ; McGroder, Sharon M. ; Moore, Kristin A.
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2000

    As we seek to understand the effects on families of the 1996 welfare reform law, we can build on the foundation of a rigorous evaluation study focusing on the effects on families of welfare-to-work programs implemented under the previous welfare law, the Family Support Act of 1988. The National Evaluation of Welfare-to-Work Strategies (the NEWWS, funded by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services and the U.S. Department of Education) is evaluating the impact of a set of welfare-to-work programs operated under "JOBS" (the Job Opportunities and Basic Skills Training Program). A pioneering feature of this national evaluation is that it simultaneously considers program impacts on adult economic outcomes and on the development and well-being of the children in the families.

    This summary report presents a summary of findings from one of a set of three complementary reports from the National Evaluation of Welfare-to-Work Strategies' two-year follow-up (with results from a further follow-up, completed five...

    As we seek to understand the effects on families of the 1996 welfare reform law, we can build on the foundation of a rigorous evaluation study focusing on the effects on families of welfare-to-work programs implemented under the previous welfare law, the Family Support Act of 1988. The National Evaluation of Welfare-to-Work Strategies (the NEWWS, funded by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services and the U.S. Department of Education) is evaluating the impact of a set of welfare-to-work programs operated under "JOBS" (the Job Opportunities and Basic Skills Training Program). A pioneering feature of this national evaluation is that it simultaneously considers program impacts on adult economic outcomes and on the development and well-being of the children in the families.

    This summary report presents a summary of findings from one of a set of three complementary reports from the National Evaluation of Welfare-to-Work Strategies' two-year follow-up (with results from a further follow-up, completed five years after families enrolled, to be presented in the future). We focus in the present summary report on the findings related to impacts on children, reporting results from a special component of the evaluation, the Child Outcomes Study (see McGroder, Zaslow, Moore and LeMenestrel, 2000, for a detailed presentation of findings). This component of the evaluation focuses in depth on children's development and well-being for a sample of families with young (preschool-age) children at the start of the evaluation, drawn from three of the evaluation's seven research sites. A second report in this series focuses primarily on economic impacts in all seven of the evaluation's research sites, with a more limited examination of impacts on children of all ages (Freedman, Friedlander, Hamilton, Rock, Mitchell, Nudelman, Schweder, and Storto, 2000). A third report draws together findings on children from the in-depth look at young children in the Child Outcomes Study, and brief markers of well-being collected regarding children of all ages in families in the full evaluation sample (Hamilton, with Freedman and McGroder, 2000).

    The Child Outcomes Study of the National Evaluation of Welfare-to-Work Strategies examines the impacts on both the parental and child generations of two distinct approaches to welfare reform implemented as part of the federal JOBS Program: a labor force attachment approach (emphasizing a rapid transition to employment), and a human capital development approach (emphasizing a longer-term strategy of education and training in order to obtain a better job). These strategies are precursors of the welfare reform programs now being implemented under the 1996 welfare law, the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA). The labor force attachment approach under JOBS is especially germane because of its emphasis on moving clients quickly into employment, the clear priority of new policies. However, the human capital development approach may provide an informative model for states as caseloads drop, and those families remaining on welfare face more barriers to employment (such as low literacy or limited education).

    Although welfare policies were initiated many years ago with the aim of protecting children in poor families, most of the evaluation research concerning these policies has focused on adult economic outcomes. This is perhaps not surprising, given that the most clearly targeted outcomes of these programs have been economic. The Family Support Act explicitly stated as its goal the reduction of long-term welfare dependency. Further, this law did not call for services aimed directly at enhancing the development of children (such as early childhood educational intervention, or developmental screening); rather authorized services focused on increasing adult employment.

    Nevertheless, a mother's assignment to a welfare-to-work program has the potential to affect the development of children, for example, by affecting the material resources available within the family, and by affecting children's experiences of care both within and outside of the home. The Child Outcomes Study of the National Evaluation of Welfare-to-Work Strategies examines whether children can be affected by their mothers' assignment to a welfare-to-work program, how their development and well-being are affected (favorably or unfavorably), if at all, and in what ways any impacts on children come about.

    The Child Outcomes Study uses a rigorous experimental design. Two years after mothers were randomly assigned to one of the two JOBS welfare-to-work strategies or to a control group, outcomes for children (at that point between about 5 and 7 years of age) were examined. The children's cognitive development and academic achievement were measured through a combination of direct assessment (an assessment of the children's cognitive school readiness) and maternal report (for example, mothers' reports of academic problems). The children's behavioral and emotional adjustment were measured through maternal report (for example, using measures of the child's behavior problems and positive social behaviors). The children's health and safety were also measured through maternal report (for example, using an interview measure indicating whether the child has had an accident, injury or poisoning requiring emergency medical attention; an interview measure widely used in national surveys in which the mother indicates whether she sees the child's overall health as excellent, very good, good, fair, or poor). Validation work indicates that the global health rating reflects primarily physical health problems (Krause and Jay, 1994).In general, all measures selected for use in the Child Outcomes Study have demonstrated sufficient validity and reliability (Bracken, 1984; Polit, 1996; Zill, 1985; Peterson and ZILL, 1986)

    In addition to examining mean scores on measures of cognitive school readiness, problem and positive behavior, and overall health, we also examined program impacts on the proportion of children with extreme scores on these measures in the interest of ascertaining whether JOBS welfare-to-work programs changed the distribution of children's outcomes — for example, reducing the proportion at the "unfavorable" end and/or increasing the proportion at the "favorable" end — which is possible even if the programs had no impacts on mean scores. Thus, in some cases a single response to a survey question can give rise to two or more impacts (e.g., one relating to the mean and one relating to the distribution).

    The Child Outcomes Study was conducted in three sites: Atlanta, Georgia; Grand Rapids, Michigan; and Riverside, California. Families enrolled in the evaluation between September 1991 and January 1994. Data collection for the two-year follow-up was completed in January 1996, prior to the implementation of the new welfare law. Findings from this study must be seen in light of the fact that mothers were exempt from participation in JOBS welfare-to-work activities if they were needed at home to care for an ill or incapacitated family member, including a child. As a result, children with a health condition requiring such care were not included in the evaluation. The 1996 welfare law no longer provides an explicit exemption for a mother with an ill or incapacitated child.

    In this experimental evaluation, mothers randomly assigned to a control group in each of the study sites were eligible for all welfare benefits. However, they did not receive the special messages and case management of a JOBS program, they were not mandated to participate in JOBS program activities, and they did not have access to the particular work preparation activities through JOBS. Control group members were eligible for child care assistance, similar to that offered to program group members, if they were participating in work preparation activities in which they had enrolled on their own. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Glosser, Asaph; Morrison, Carly; Judkins, David
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2017

    This report documents the implementation and early impacts of the Health Careers for All program, operated by the Workforce Development Council of Seattle-King County (WDC). Health Careers for All aimed to help low-income adults access and complete occupational training that can lead to increased employment and higher earnings. It is one of nine career pathways programs being evaluated under the Pathways for Advancing Careers and Education (PACE) study sponsored by the Administration for Children and Families (ACF) within the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. The program had four key elements: (1) navigation and case management services; (2) tuition-free access to occupational training in healthcare fields, funded through “cohorts” (course packages open exclusively to participants and fully funded by the program) based at community and technical colleges or through Individual Training Accounts; (3) employment services; and (4) financial assistance during and immediately following training to help address barriers to program completion or employment. Health Careers for...

    This report documents the implementation and early impacts of the Health Careers for All program, operated by the Workforce Development Council of Seattle-King County (WDC). Health Careers for All aimed to help low-income adults access and complete occupational training that can lead to increased employment and higher earnings. It is one of nine career pathways programs being evaluated under the Pathways for Advancing Careers and Education (PACE) study sponsored by the Administration for Children and Families (ACF) within the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. The program had four key elements: (1) navigation and case management services; (2) tuition-free access to occupational training in healthcare fields, funded through “cohorts” (course packages open exclusively to participants and fully funded by the program) based at community and technical colleges or through Individual Training Accounts; (3) employment services; and (4) financial assistance during and immediately following training to help address barriers to program completion or employment. Health Careers for All was funded by the Health Profession Opportunity Grants (HPOG) Program from 2010 to 2015. HPOG, administered by ACF, was created to provide education and training to Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) recipients and other low-income individuals for occupations in the healthcare field that pay well and are expected to either experience labor shortages or be in high demand. Using a rigorous research design, the study found that Health Careers for All increased the percentage of participants enrolling in healthcare-related training over an 18-month follow-up period. However, there was no impact overall on receipt of a credential or total hours of occupational training. Future reports will examine whether the program resulted in gains in employment and earnings. (Author abstract)  

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