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The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

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  • Individual Author: Hsiao, Cheng; Shen, Yan; Wang, Boquing; Weeks, Greg
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2007

    This paper uses an unbalanced panel dataset to evaluate how repeated job search services (JSS) and other personal characteristics affect the quarterly earnings of the prime-age female welfare recipients in the State of Washington. We propose a joint dependent framework for the probability of employment and potential earnings or hours or hourly wage rates to facilitate the investigation of the issues of joint determination of employment and potential earnings and to allow for factors to have different impacts on employment status and on quarterly earnings. We have also suggested formulae to compute the dynamic impact of JSS on duration and earnings. Both the maximum likelihood (ML) and semi-parametric estimates are provided. We find that the results are sensitive to the choice of models and estimation methods. For a randomly assigned individual, the first, second and three or more JSS raised the short-run and long-run earnings by (5%, 0%, 0%) and (1%, 0%, 0%), respectively, based on the MLE, and by (56.6%, 36.2%, 36.9%) and (50.7%, 36.2%, 36.9%), respectively, based on the semi-...

    This paper uses an unbalanced panel dataset to evaluate how repeated job search services (JSS) and other personal characteristics affect the quarterly earnings of the prime-age female welfare recipients in the State of Washington. We propose a joint dependent framework for the probability of employment and potential earnings or hours or hourly wage rates to facilitate the investigation of the issues of joint determination of employment and potential earnings and to allow for factors to have different impacts on employment status and on quarterly earnings. We have also suggested formulae to compute the dynamic impact of JSS on duration and earnings. Both the maximum likelihood (ML) and semi-parametric estimates are provided. We find that the results are sensitive to the choice of models and estimation methods. For a randomly assigned individual, the first, second and three or more JSS raised the short-run and long-run earnings by (5%, 0%, 0%) and (1%, 0%, 0%), respectively, based on the MLE, and by (56.6%, 36.2%, 36.9%) and (50.7%, 36.2%, 36.9%), respectively, based on the semi-parametric Tobit model. We have also conducted specification analysis. The results appear to favor semi-parametric Type II Tobit model estimates. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Underwood, Daniel A.; Axelsen, Dan; Friesner, Dan
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2010

    This paper empirically identifies and isolates the role demographics and cultural filters - a priori attributes used to screen applicants differentially - play in determining employment patterns by industry and region. Our analysis focuses on three geographically and culturally distinct areas of Washington State with high WorkFirst (Washington's TANF program) eligible populations and industries where those individuals are likely to seek employment. Using data from a panel of WorkFirst participants, empirical results indicate that employment levels and wage premiums vary significantly by demographics, both within and across regions, and that cultural filtering partly explains these variations. It is argued that if the shared goal of WorkFirst and TANF is to move people from welfare to work, participants should be directed toward those industries in which they have a relatively high probability of being favorably "filtered," be better prepared to possess those attributes filtered for, and for WorkFirst to take on an active role as "match-maker" between program participants...

    This paper empirically identifies and isolates the role demographics and cultural filters - a priori attributes used to screen applicants differentially - play in determining employment patterns by industry and region. Our analysis focuses on three geographically and culturally distinct areas of Washington State with high WorkFirst (Washington's TANF program) eligible populations and industries where those individuals are likely to seek employment. Using data from a panel of WorkFirst participants, empirical results indicate that employment levels and wage premiums vary significantly by demographics, both within and across regions, and that cultural filtering partly explains these variations. It is argued that if the shared goal of WorkFirst and TANF is to move people from welfare to work, participants should be directed toward those industries in which they have a relatively high probability of being favorably "filtered," be better prepared to possess those attributes filtered for, and for WorkFirst to take on an active role as "match-maker" between program participants and employers. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Fiedler, Fred; Felver, Barbara
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2006

    This report addresses whether adult TANF clients with limited English proficiency (LEP) receive similar levels of services from DSHS and the DSHS Economic Services Administration compared to adult TANF clients with a greater command of the English language, and if they experienced similar employment outcomes. The analysis is based on adult TANF clients (LEP and non-LEP) who received services in State Fiscal Year 2003. Data available for SFY 03 suggests that TANF adults who are limited English proficient (LEP) receive a comparable amount of DSHS and ESA services compared with TANF adults who are not. (author abstract) 

    This report addresses whether adult TANF clients with limited English proficiency (LEP) receive similar levels of services from DSHS and the DSHS Economic Services Administration compared to adult TANF clients with a greater command of the English language, and if they experienced similar employment outcomes. The analysis is based on adult TANF clients (LEP and non-LEP) who received services in State Fiscal Year 2003. Data available for SFY 03 suggests that TANF adults who are limited English proficient (LEP) receive a comparable amount of DSHS and ESA services compared with TANF adults who are not. (author abstract) 

  • Individual Author: Roman, Caterina G. ; Link, Nathan
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2015

    Former prisoners are increasingly facing the burden of financial debt associated with legal and criminal justice obligations in the U.S., yet little research has pursued how— theoretically or empirically—the burden of debt might affect key outcomes in prisoner reentry. To address the limited research, we examine the impact that having legal child support (CS) obligations has on employment and recidivism using data from the Serious and Violent Offender Reentry Initiative (SVORI). In this report we describe the characteristics of adult male returning prisoners with child support orders and debt, and examine whether participation in SVORI was associated with greater services receipt than those in the comparison groups (for relevant services such as child-support services, employment preparation, and financial and legal assistance).

    We also examine the lagged impacts that child support obligations, legal employment and rearrest have on each other. Results from the crossed lagged panel model using GSEM in STATA indicate that while having child support debt...

    Former prisoners are increasingly facing the burden of financial debt associated with legal and criminal justice obligations in the U.S., yet little research has pursued how— theoretically or empirically—the burden of debt might affect key outcomes in prisoner reentry. To address the limited research, we examine the impact that having legal child support (CS) obligations has on employment and recidivism using data from the Serious and Violent Offender Reentry Initiative (SVORI). In this report we describe the characteristics of adult male returning prisoners with child support orders and debt, and examine whether participation in SVORI was associated with greater services receipt than those in the comparison groups (for relevant services such as child-support services, employment preparation, and financial and legal assistance).

    We also examine the lagged impacts that child support obligations, legal employment and rearrest have on each other. Results from the crossed lagged panel model using GSEM in STATA indicate that while having child support debt does not appear to influence employment significantly, it does show a marginally significant protective effect—former prisoners who have child support obligations are less likely to be arrested after release from prison than those who do not have obligations. We discuss the findings within the framework of past and emerging theoretical work on desistance from crime. We also discuss the implications for prisoner reentry policy and practice. (Author abstract)

  • Individual Author: The Lewin Group, Inc.
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2001

    This report summarizes the findings from information collected during three sets of focus groups conducted for a study on employment supports for people with disabilities sponsored by the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation (ASPE) within the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. The study is intended to increase the understanding of the role of various supports in helping people with disabilities find and maintain employment.

    The findings in this report are from focus groups conducted with 284 participants with significant disabilities, all of whom had obtained a measure of employment success, in Los Angeles, California; Newark, New Jersey; and Seattle/Tacoma, Washington, between April and December 2000. The focus groups were conducted between April and December 2000. All participants were 18 years old or older, had a significant disability with onset prior to first substantial employment, and had annual earnings of at least $8,240 before taxes and transfers. At the time of the focus groups, the latter was the federal poverty line for a...

    This report summarizes the findings from information collected during three sets of focus groups conducted for a study on employment supports for people with disabilities sponsored by the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation (ASPE) within the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. The study is intended to increase the understanding of the role of various supports in helping people with disabilities find and maintain employment.

    The findings in this report are from focus groups conducted with 284 participants with significant disabilities, all of whom had obtained a measure of employment success, in Los Angeles, California; Newark, New Jersey; and Seattle/Tacoma, Washington, between April and December 2000. The focus groups were conducted between April and December 2000. All participants were 18 years old or older, had a significant disability with onset prior to first substantial employment, and had annual earnings of at least $8,240 before taxes and transfers. At the time of the focus groups, the latter was the federal poverty line for a family of one.1 It is approximately equivalent to working 30 hours a week at the federal minimum wage. Basic socio-demographic, disability, and employment information was collected via a telephone screening instrument and a pre-focus group registration form.

    A slight majority of participants were male, and their average age was 38 at the time of interview. Just over half (55 percent) had experienced disability onset before age 13. Just over half were single, 61 percent were white, 16 percent were African-American, and 13 percent were of Hispanic ethnicity. While all had substantial earnings, 23 percent had annual earnings below $10,000. Median earnings were under $20,000. Only 7 percent had earnings above $50,000. Many lived in households with other income; median household income was about $40,000. The largest impairment category was mental illness (30 percent), followed by communication (21 percent) and mobility (19 percent) impairments.

    Prior to each focus group session, participants were asked to rank on a scale of 1 (very important) to 5 (not important) the importance of various supports in helping them find and maintain employment. About 75 percent (or more) of participants assigned a rank of 1 or 2 to each of five supports (listed in descending order): family encouragement; access to health insurance; skills development and training; college; and employer accommodations. Job coach services, personal assistance services (PAS) and special education ranked lowest, with more than 45 percent of participants assigning a rank of 4 or 5 to these supports.

    We asked focus group participants to discuss supports that were important to them at three critical periods of their lives: during childhood or at disability onset; obtaining first employment or first employment after disability onset; and in maintaining current employment. We present the findings from these focus groups below. Because we found that the supports used to obtain first employment and those used to maintain current employment were very similar, we have combined the discussion of these topics into one section. (author abstract)

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