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The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

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  • Individual Author: Morgenstern, Jon; Riordan, Annette; McCrady, Barbara S.; Blanchard, Kimberly; McVeigh, Katherine K.; Irwin, Thomas W.
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2001

    The purpose of this study was to learn more about the substance abuse problems and other barriers to employment of women on TANF who were identified as being dependent on alcohol or other drugs. The study examined the nature, severity, course, and treatment needs for substance abuse problems in this population. The study also assessed problems in seven other areas thought to be barriers to employment. Because most women on TANF experience some barriers to employment, the study compared women with a substance abuse problem to those without a problem. This comparison allowed us to study and determine whether substance-abusing women were more impaired than other women on welfare across important domains related to employment. Finally, the study examined the well-being of children based on mother's self-report. (author abstract)

    The purpose of this study was to learn more about the substance abuse problems and other barriers to employment of women on TANF who were identified as being dependent on alcohol or other drugs. The study examined the nature, severity, course, and treatment needs for substance abuse problems in this population. The study also assessed problems in seven other areas thought to be barriers to employment. Because most women on TANF experience some barriers to employment, the study compared women with a substance abuse problem to those without a problem. This comparison allowed us to study and determine whether substance-abusing women were more impaired than other women on welfare across important domains related to employment. Finally, the study examined the well-being of children based on mother's self-report. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Wickizer, Thomas M.; Campbell, Kevin; Krupski, Antoinette; Stark, Kenneth
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2000

    In 1996, Congress passed sweeping welfare reform, abolishing the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) program. Each state now administers its own welfare-to-work program under broad federal guidelines, which require eligible adult recipients to work or perform community service. High-risk welfare recipients, especially those with chemical dependency problems, face significant obstacles in their efforts to achieve greater self-sufficiency under the new welfare-to-work programs. State databases were used to track employment outcomes for AFDC clients admitted to treatment for chemical dependency in Washington State during a two-year period. Exposure to treatment was associated with a greater likelihood of becoming employed and with increased earnings for those who became employed. Ensuring that welfare recipients with substance abuse problems have access to appropriate treatment and vocational services is critical if welfare-to-work programs are to promote greater economic self-sufficiency. (Author abstract)

    In 1996, Congress passed sweeping welfare reform, abolishing the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) program. Each state now administers its own welfare-to-work program under broad federal guidelines, which require eligible adult recipients to work or perform community service. High-risk welfare recipients, especially those with chemical dependency problems, face significant obstacles in their efforts to achieve greater self-sufficiency under the new welfare-to-work programs. State databases were used to track employment outcomes for AFDC clients admitted to treatment for chemical dependency in Washington State during a two-year period. Exposure to treatment was associated with a greater likelihood of becoming employed and with increased earnings for those who became employed. Ensuring that welfare recipients with substance abuse problems have access to appropriate treatment and vocational services is critical if welfare-to-work programs are to promote greater economic self-sufficiency. (Author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Morgenstern, Jon; Neighbors, Charles J.; Kuerbis, Alexis; Riordan, Annette; Blanchard, Kimberly A.; McVeigh, Katharine H.; Morgan, Thomas J.; McCrady, Barbara
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2009

    The authors examined abstinence rates among substance-dependent women receiving Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) in intensive case management (ICM) over 24 months and whether ICM yielded significantly better employment outcomes compared with a screen-and-refer program (i.e., usual care). Substance-dependent (n = 302) and non–substance dependent (n = 150) TANF applicants in Essex County, New Jersey, were recruited. Substance-dependent women were randomly assigned to ICM or usual care. The researchers interviewed all women at 3, 9, 15, and 24 months. Findings were that the Abstinence rates were higher for the ICM group than for the usual care group through 24 months of follow-up (odds ratio [OR] = 2.11; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.36, 3.29). A statistically significant interaction between time and group on number of days employed indicated that the rate of improvement over time in employment was greater for the ICM group than for the usual care group (incidence rate ratio = 1.03; 95% CI = 1.02, 1.04). Additionally, there were greater odds of being employed full...

    The authors examined abstinence rates among substance-dependent women receiving Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) in intensive case management (ICM) over 24 months and whether ICM yielded significantly better employment outcomes compared with a screen-and-refer program (i.e., usual care). Substance-dependent (n = 302) and non–substance dependent (n = 150) TANF applicants in Essex County, New Jersey, were recruited. Substance-dependent women were randomly assigned to ICM or usual care. The researchers interviewed all women at 3, 9, 15, and 24 months. Findings were that the Abstinence rates were higher for the ICM group than for the usual care group through 24 months of follow-up (odds ratio [OR] = 2.11; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.36, 3.29). A statistically significant interaction between time and group on number of days employed indicated that the rate of improvement over time in employment was greater for the ICM group than for the usual care group (incidence rate ratio = 1.03; 95% CI = 1.02, 1.04). Additionally, there were greater odds of being employed full time for those in the ICM group (OR = 1.68; 95% CI = 1.12, 2.51). ICM was found to be a promising intervention for managing substance dependence among women receiving TANF and for improving employment rates among this vulnerable population. (Author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Morgenstern, Jon; McCrady, Barbara S.; Blanchard, Kimberly A.; McVeigh, Katharine H.; Riordan, Annette; Irwin, Thomas W.
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2003

    This study examined barriers to employability among women meeting criteria for a substance dependence disorder who were identified by routine screening conducted in welfare offices. The characteristics of these women were compared to other women on welfare who did not have a substance use disorder. A sample of 214 substance dependent women on federal welfare were recruited to participate in a substance use disorders welfare demonstration project. An additional 69 non-substance-affected women on welfare served as a comparison sample. All participants were assessed in welfare settings through a standardized battery of measures. Substance dependent women reported moderate to severe substance use problems. They also reported significantly higher rates than the women with no substance use disorder of other barriers such as domestic violence, mental health problems, legal problems, child welfare investigations and fewer job skills. Findings raise questions about the likely effectiveness of existing welfare reform services in addressing the needs of substance dependent women. (author...

    This study examined barriers to employability among women meeting criteria for a substance dependence disorder who were identified by routine screening conducted in welfare offices. The characteristics of these women were compared to other women on welfare who did not have a substance use disorder. A sample of 214 substance dependent women on federal welfare were recruited to participate in a substance use disorders welfare demonstration project. An additional 69 non-substance-affected women on welfare served as a comparison sample. All participants were assessed in welfare settings through a standardized battery of measures. Substance dependent women reported moderate to severe substance use problems. They also reported significantly higher rates than the women with no substance use disorder of other barriers such as domestic violence, mental health problems, legal problems, child welfare investigations and fewer job skills. Findings raise questions about the likely effectiveness of existing welfare reform services in addressing the needs of substance dependent women. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Gutman, Marjorie A.; McKay, James; Ketterlinus, Robert D.; McLellan, A. Thomas
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2003

    Aim: To assess the prevalence and relationship to later employment of potential barriers to work for substance-abusing women on Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF) enrolled in a multiservice welfare-to-work program. Design: A field study with repeated measures and intent-to-treat sampling. Intervention: The CASAWORKS for Families (CWF) was delivered in 11 sites in nine states across the nation and featured integration of substance-abuse treatment and employment and work readiness services. Measurement: The Addiction Severity Index, supplemented with subject-appropriate questions. Sample: A total of 366 CWF women who completed interviews at program enrollment, and at 6 and 12 months later. Findings: Substance-abusing women on TANF in the CWF program exhibited multiple potential barriers to work at enrollment, averaging 6 out of 14 potential barriers assessed. They reported significantly more obstacles than a general welfare sample of women from the same locales. Few single barriers were significantly related to employment at 12 months. However, the total number of...

    Aim: To assess the prevalence and relationship to later employment of potential barriers to work for substance-abusing women on Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF) enrolled in a multiservice welfare-to-work program. Design: A field study with repeated measures and intent-to-treat sampling. Intervention: The CASAWORKS for Families (CWF) was delivered in 11 sites in nine states across the nation and featured integration of substance-abuse treatment and employment and work readiness services. Measurement: The Addiction Severity Index, supplemented with subject-appropriate questions. Sample: A total of 366 CWF women who completed interviews at program enrollment, and at 6 and 12 months later. Findings: Substance-abusing women on TANF in the CWF program exhibited multiple potential barriers to work at enrollment, averaging 6 out of 14 potential barriers assessed. They reported significantly more obstacles than a general welfare sample of women from the same locales. Few single barriers were significantly related to employment at 12 months. However, the total number of potential barriers to work experienced, particularly at 6 months, was related to employment at 12 months. (author abstract)

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